Stallion Breeding Soundness Exams

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  1. What is the purpose of breeding soundness exams?
    • select stallions for fertility
    • eliminate stallions with heritable defects
    • alert owners of fertility problems
    • determine causes of infertility
  2. What conditions can occur at any time that affect fertility?
    • injury
    • age
    • over-working
  3. What is a barren mare?
    been exposed to a stallion but hasn't conceived
  4. What is a maiden mare?
    hasn't conceived before
  5. What are some things to consider when determining the intended uses of a stallion?
    • natural services vs AI
    • fresh cooled semen
    • frozen semen
    • size of book
  6. What does a general physical exam check for?
    • conformation
    • lameness
    • vision
    • inherited defects
    • cryptorchidism
    • CIV
    • parrot mouth
    • hemophilia
    • multiple extosis
    • ultrasound
  7. Why do you want to be sure your stud is healthy?
    breeding is mentally and physically stressful
  8. Why is lameness in stallions a problem?
    • affects libido
    • lowers sperm count and ejaculate volume
    • hocks and back
  9. What lab tests can provide helpful info?
    • hematology (blood profiles)
    • urine analysis
    • fecal egg count
  10. Why do you want to monitor a stallions diet?
    monitor weight and nutrition
  11. What is EVA?
    • Equine Viral Arteritis¬†
    • symptoms: abortion, flu-like symptoms
    • spreads easily
    • only get it once, but infected stallions can carry it for a long time
  12. What is CEM?
    • Contagious Equine Metritis
    • bacterial disease
    • contagious venereal disease carried by mares and stallions
    • affects mares (lowers conception rate and causes abortion)
    • symptoms: inflammation of uterus
    • test by: swab test/blood test
    • can be treated but not vaccinated
  13. What is CID?
    • Combined Immunodeficiency
    • genetic disorder commonly found in Arabians
    • affects immune system
    • develop illnesses that are hard to treat
  14. What is Parrot Mouth?
    • undesirable conformation trait
    • severe over-bite
    • horses can't forage like they're supposed to
    • odd dental issues
    • need lots of special attention
  15. What is Aniridia?
    • rare genetic defect
    • absence of the iris
    • have other symptoms of photophobia
    • can occur from trauma
  16. What are cataracts?
    • congenital disease
    • cause blindness as they mature
    • cataract surgery in foals is highly successful
  17. What is Multiple Exotosis?
    • hereditary
    • generally affect long bones
    • bony deposits on ends of long bones, usually where joints are
  18. What do physical examinations of the outer repro tract look at?
    • close inspection and palpation of the penis, scrotum and testicles
    • make sure everything is in tact and present
  19. Inspecting testicles:
    • measure size and speculate production
    • can predict breeding potential
  20. What is the formula for testicular volume?
    TVmL=.5233x width x height x length
  21. How to figure out Total scrotal volume?
    • measure each testicle
    • figure out its TVmL
    • add together for total scrotal volume
  22. Why shouldn't you clean a stallion with soap?
    • soap can kill sperm, leave residue and irritate the skin
    • use warm water instead
  23. What is smegma?
    • epithelial debris
    • needs to be cleaned during breeding season because it harbors bacteria and can contaminate collection
  24. What to look for during a visual examination of the penis?
    • skin should be thin and pliable
    • lacerations
    • sores
    • pustules/blisters
  25. What is Coital Exanthema?
    • equine herpes
    • start small but can develop into bigger sores
    • can develop anytime during breeding season
  26. What is Hemospermia?
    • blood in the ejaculate
    • indicates infection somewhere in the tract
    • treatment: sexual rest for several weeks; antibiotics if appropriate
    • infusions into the uterus to treat mares
  27. What is Urospermia?
    • urine in the ejaculate
    • causes a decrease in viability and motility (ultimately lower fertility)
  28. What can cause Urospermia?
    • neurological issue
    • bladder paralysis
    • EHV-1 infection (herpes virus)
    • sorghum/sudan grass toxicity
  29. What is testicular microlithiasis?
    • condition diagnosed by ultra-sound
    • asymptomatic
    • associated with testicular cancer
  30. What is testicular degeneration?
    progressive decline in fertility accompanied by decreasing testicular size and semen quality
  31. What can cause low sperm motility?
    • abnormal cells
    • accessory sex gland fluid
    • sperm stasis
  32. What is sperm stasis?
    storage problem in the ampullae (sperm stay in storage for too long)
  33. What can fix the problem of low sperm motility?
    • increasing the frequency of collection
    • daily collection
    • administration of oxytocin or PGF (hormonal treatment)
  34. What is a problem with collecting too often?
    get immature sperm
Card Set:
Stallion Breeding Soundness Exams
2015-02-05 21:22:31

equine reproduction
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