Stallion Breeding Soundness Exams
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Stallion Breeding Soundness Exams
What is the purpose of breeding soundness exams?
select stallions for fertility
eliminate stallions with heritable defects
alert owners of fertility problems
determine causes of infertility
What conditions can occur at any time that affect fertility?
What is a barren mare?
been exposed to a stallion but hasn't conceived
What is a maiden mare?
hasn't conceived before
What are some things to consider when determining the intended uses of a stallion?
natural services vs AI
fresh cooled semen
size of book
What does a general physical exam check for?
Why do you want to be sure your stud is healthy?
breeding is mentally and physically stressful
Why is lameness in stallions a problem?
lowers sperm count and ejaculate volume
hocks and back
What lab tests can provide helpful info?
hematology (blood profiles)
fecal egg count
Why do you want to monitor a stallions diet?
monitor weight and nutrition
What is EVA?
Equine Viral Arteritis
: abortion, flu-like symptoms
only get it once, but infected stallions can carry it for a long time
What is CEM?
Contagious Equine Metritis
contagious venereal disease carried by mares and stallions
affects mares (lowers conception rate and causes abortion)
: inflammation of uterus
: swab test/blood test
can be treated but not vaccinated
What is CID?
genetic disorder commonly found in Arabians
affects immune system
develop illnesses that are hard to treat
What is Parrot Mouth?
undesirable conformation trait
horses can't forage like they're supposed to
odd dental issues
need lots of special attention
What is Aniridia?
rare genetic defect
absence of the iris
have other symptoms of photophobia
can occur from trauma
What are cataracts?
cause blindness as they mature
cataract surgery in foals is highly successful
What is Multiple Exotosis?
generally affect long bones
bony deposits on ends of long bones, usually where joints are
What do physical examinations of the outer repro tract look at?
close inspection and palpation of the penis, scrotum and testicles
make sure everything is in tact and present
measure size and speculate production
can predict breeding potential
What is the formula for testicular volume?
TVmL=.5233x width x height x length
How to figure out Total scrotal volume?
measure each testicle
figure out its TVmL
add together for total scrotal volume
Why shouldn't you clean a stallion with soap?
soap can kill sperm, leave residue and irritate the skin
use warm water instead
What is smegma?
needs to be cleaned during breeding season because it harbors bacteria and can contaminate collection
What to look for during a visual examination of the penis?
skin should be thin and pliable
What is Coital Exanthema?
start small but can develop into bigger sores
can develop anytime during breeding season
What is Hemospermia?
blood in the ejaculate
indicates infection somewhere in the tract
: sexual rest for several weeks; antibiotics if appropriate
infusions into the uterus to treat mares
What is Urospermia?
urine in the ejaculate
causes a decrease in viability and motility (ultimately lower fertility)
What can cause Urospermia?
EHV-1 infection (herpes virus)
sorghum/sudan grass toxicity
What is testicular microlithiasis?
condition diagnosed by ultra-sound
associated with testicular cancer
What is testicular degeneration?
progressive decline in fertility accompanied by decreasing testicular size and semen quality
What can cause low sperm motility?
accessory sex gland fluid
What is sperm stasis?
storage problem in the ampullae (sperm stay in storage for too long)
What can fix the problem of low sperm motility?
increasing the frequency of collection
administration of oxytocin or PGF (hormonal treatment)
What is a problem with collecting too often?
get immature sperm