Microbiology Test 2

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bdgauthia
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295006
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Microbiology Test 2
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2015-03-05 10:22:48
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Microbial metabolism nutrition genetics engineering
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microbiology
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  1. Which of the following is NOT a polysaccharide produced by cells?
    Cholesterol
  2. The site of photosynthesis within a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell is the _____?
    chloroplast
  3. Denaturing is typically a problem with which of the following?
    proteins
  4. A proton is an atomic particle with ______?
    positive charge
  5. Where would you expect to find electron transport chains in a prokaryotic cell?
  6. In metabolism, energy that is not used is:
    given off as heat
  7. The study of inheritance and inheritable traits as expressed in an organism's genetic material.
    genetics
  8. Entire genetic complement, including both its genes and nucleotide sequences that connect genes to one another.
    genome
  9. Specific sequences of nucleotides that code for RNA or polypeptide molecules.
    gene
  10. What is a nucleotide composed of?
    a nucleoside attached to a phosphate
  11. What does antiparallel with respect to DNA?
    5' to 3' runs along side 3' to 5'
  12. Adenine and Thymine are joined together by how may hydrogen bonds?
    two
  13. Guanine and cytosine are joined together by how many hydrogen bonds?
    three
  14. What is special about Epulopiscium?
    giant bacteria that has thousands of identical chromosomes.
  15. Enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis reaction
    hydrolase
  16. Enzyme that rearranges atoms within a molecule (neither catabolic nor anabolic)
    isomerase
  17. Enzyme that joins two or more chemicals together (anabolic)
    ligase or polymerase
  18. Enzyme that splits a chemical into smaller parts without losing water (catabolic)
    lyase
  19. Enzyme that transfers electrons or hydrogen atoms from one molecule to another
    oxidoreductase
  20. Enzyme that moves a functional group from one molecule to another (may be anabolic)
    transferase
  21. What are the three electron carrier molecules, which are derived from vitamins?
    • NAD+
    • NADP+
    • FAD
  22. Involves the transfer of phosphate to ADP from another phosphorylated organic compound.
    substrate-level phosphorylation
  23. Energy from redox reactions of respiration is used to attach inorganic phosphate to ADP.
    oxidative phosphorylation
  24. Light energy is used to phosphorylate ADP with inorganic phosphate.
    photophosphorylation
  25. Name the four carrier molecules:
    • flavoproteins
    • ubiquinones
    • metal-containing proteins
    • cytochromes
    • **final e- carrier is Oxygen if organism can tolerate oxygen**
  26. What is removing H2 and adding O2 called?
    oxydizing
  27. What is adding H and removing O2 called?
    reducing
  28. How many ATP are produced for bacteria?
    38
  29. Why are photosynthetic bacteria normally not pathogenic?
    they build their own food
  30. chloroplast --> thylakoids --> chlorophyll
    just need to know the structure
  31. What is the loss of electron, loss of a hydrogen, and a gain of an oxygen?
    Oxidation
  32. Name purines:
    Guanine and Cytosine
  33. Name pyrimidines:
    Adenine and Thymine
  34. The ________ growth temperature is the temperature at which an organism exhibits the highest growth rate.
    optimum
  35. Bacteria that thrive at human body temperatures are classified as ________.
    mesophiles
  36. All of the following are used to protect organisms from the toxic by-products of oxygen EXCEPT
    protease
  37. The term barophile refers to which of the following growth requirements?
    hydrostatic pressure
  38. T/F
    Quorum sensing is a process by which bacteria respond to the density of other bacteria in their environment.
    true
  39. A(n) ________ is composed of cells that arise from a single colony.
    pure culture
  40. The ________ of an enzyme is reached when all active sites have bound substrate molecules.
    saturation point
  41. Use of an organic molecule as a final electron acceptor is apart of what metabolic process?
    fermentation
  42. know the structure of the enzyme
  43. This type of inhibitor prevents the ability of an enzymes normal substrate to bind.
    competitive inhibitor
  44. Allosteric activation
  45. What is Krebs Cycle also known as?
    Citric Acid Cycle
  46. Name the two electron carriers of Krebs Cycle:
    • NADH
    • FADH
  47. How many ATP are equal to one NADH in Krebs Cycle?
    three
  48. Including the transition step, how many carbon dioxide molecules are produced in the Krebs cycle?
    three
  49. NADH is converted to ATP in a process known as ___________________.
    oxidation phosphorylation
  50. What is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain of aerobic bacteria?
    oxygen
  51. Small, lipid-soluble, nonprotein electron carriers are ___________.
    ubiquinones
  52. Membrane-bound proteins involved in the electron transport chain that contain a heme group are termed _____________________.
    cytochromes
  53. What would be a final electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration?
    nitrate and sulfate ion
  54. Acts in a manner similar to oxygen deprivation and blocks cytochrome a3:
    cyanide poisoning
  55. What effect does oxygen deprivation have on an aerobic cell?
    cant maintain proton gradient
  56. What is the term used to describe ion gradients used to generate ATP called?
    chemiosmosis
  57. Swiss cheese is a product of a bacteria that ferments pyruvic acid that produces CO2 and causes wholes in the cheese. Cheddar has a different bacteria. 
    possible short answer
  58. Why does a fish market smell "fishy"?
    Some bacteria use the waste product of fish metabolism called TMAO as the final electron receptor in anaerobic respiration producing TMA which, gives off the fishy smell.
  59. Where would you find the highest concentration of hydrogen ions?
    the thylacoid space
  60. The source of electrons in photosynthesis is ________.
    photosystem I
  61. What is the end result of the Calvin-Benson cycle?
    sugar and water
  62. How many ATPs are required to produce one molecule of glucose?
    18
  63. How many cycles of the Calvin-Benson cycle are required to produce 1 molecule of glucose?
    2
  64. Coenzymes are called what?
    organic factors
  65. Leading strand is synthesized how
    5' 3' continuously
  66. Lagging strand is synthesized how
    5' 3' in segments 
  67. Small molecules of DNA that replicate independently of the chromosome:  
    plasmid

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