Mare Anatomy Part II

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Mare Anatomy Part II
2015-02-05 18:44:14

equine reproduction
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  1. What stimulates maturation of a follicle and ovulation?
    LH from the pituitary
  2. Ways to predict ovulation:
    • number of days in heat (5-8)
    • growth rate of largest follicle (3-5 mm per day)
    • size of largest follicle (about 35mm)
    • softness of preovulatory follicle
    • ultrasound image
  3. longer days cause
    quicker ovulation
  4. increase in melatonin:
    slows down reproduction deficiency
  5. light shuts off:
    GNrH production
  6. light decreases
  7. During a transition period:
    • 1-3 waves of follicles develop and regress
    • irregular/prolonged estrus exhibited
    • 1 follicle eventually ovulates
    • thereafter, mares ovulate at 21-day intervals on a monthly basis
    • hormones try to get back to normal
  8. mares in the northern hemisphere typically begin their regular cycle in:
  9. transitional periods occur in:
    Spring and Fall
  10. estrous period occurs:
    • between april and october
    • ovulatory season
  11. anestrous period occurs:
    • November to February
    • non-ovulatory season
  12. Persistent Corpus Luteum:
    • CL fails to regress in an open mare
    • GnRH not making enough follicle-stimulating hormone to regrees CL
    • diagnosed with ultrasound by day 14
    • regresses with PGF2a (leutalase)
  13. Hemorrhagic Follicles:
    • develop when follicle fails to luteinize¬†
    • doesn't produce estrogen or progesterone because FSH is gone
    • stalls ovarian activity
    • no effective treatment
    • finally regresses after 45-50 days
    • (happens during transition)
  14. Granulosa Cell Tumor
    • produces testosterone instead of estrogen/progesterone
    • interferes with normal ovarian activity
    • erractic ovaries
    • normal cyclicity resumes after removal of affected ovary
  15. What is considered a small follicle?
    below 25mm
  16. follicles are measured
  17. When is a follicle ready to ovulate?
    35 mm
  18. cyclic interval from one ovulation to the next
  19. estrus:
    • standing heat that lasts 4-7 days
    • ovulation occurs 24 to 48 hours before the end of estrus
  20. diestrus:
    • period between estrus cycles when the mare is unresponsive to the stallion
    • 14 to 18 days
  21. anestrus:
    extended season when mare is not in sexually active
  22. oocyte:
    • female germ cell
    • immature ovum
  23. female reproductive cell:
  24. newly fertilized egg:
    embryonic vessicle
  25. how long does a fertilized egg stay in the oviduct?
    6 days before moving into the uterus