Sociology Exam 1

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  1. Sociology
    The systematic study of human society
  2. The Sociological Perspective
    • Helps us see general social patterns in the behavior of particular individuals. (Berger)
    • Can also be described as seeing the strange in the familiar
  3. The study of the larger world and our society's place in it
    Global Perspective
  4. Industrialized nations that have the highest overall standard of living (74 nations)
    High-income countries
  5. Have limited industrialization and moderate personal income (72 nations)
    Middle-income countries
  6. Have little industrialization and most people are poor (49 nations)
    Low-income countries
  7. How applying the sociological perspective is useful in many ways
    • 1) It helps guide many of the laws and policies that shape our lives.
    • 2) It leads to important personal growth and expanded awareness
    • 3) It serves as excellent preparation for the world at work
  8. Three major social changes during the 17th and 18th centuries that are important to the development of sociology
    • 1) The rise of a factory-based industrial economy
    • 2) The emergence of large, thriving cities in Europe
    • 3) Political changes, including a rising concern with individual liberty and rights. The French Revolution symbolized this dramatic break with political and social tradition.
  9. Auguste CompteĀ 
    Believed that the major goal of sociology was to understand society as it actually operates
  10. Positivism
    A way of understanding based on science. (Compte favored this)
  11. Theory
    A statement of how and why specific facts are related
  12. Structural-Functional Approach
    • A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
    • It asserts that our lives are guided by social structures.
    • Each social structure has social functions, or consequences, for the operation as a whole.
  13. Social-Conflict Approach
    • Sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
    • One important type of conflict analysis is the gender-conflict approach which is closely linked to feminism.
  14. Symbolic-Interaction Approach
    Is a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals.
  15. Macro-Level Orientation
    • Focuses on broad social structures that shape society as a whole
    • Structural-Functional and Social-Conflict are these
  16. Micro-Level Orientation
    • Focuses on patterns of social interaction in specific settings
    • Symbolic-Interaction
  17. Nonmaterial culture
    The ideas created by members of a society
  18. Material Culture
    The physical things created by members of a society
  19. Culture
    • The ways of thinking, ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people'e way of life
    • Only humans depend on culture rather than instincts to ensure the survival of their kind
    • Culture is very recent and was a long time in the making
    • What sets primates apart is their intelligence. Humans made culture their primary survival strategy.
    • The concept of culture must be distinguished from those of nation (a political entity) or society (the organized interaction of people in a nation or within some other boundary)
  20. Symbols
    Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture
  21. Language
    A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another
  22. Values
    Culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good and beautiful, and which serve as broad guidelines for social living
  23. Norms
    Rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
  24. Mores
    Are norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
  25. Robin Williams' 10 key values of U.S culture: (read through)
    • Equal opportunity
    • Achievement and success
    • Material comfort
    • Activity and work
    • Practicality and efficiency
    • Progress
    • Science
    • Democracy and free enterprise
    • Freedom
    • Racism and group superiority
  26. Folkways
    Norms for routine or casual interaction
  27. Ideal Culture
    Social patterns mandated by cultural values and norms
  28. Real Culture
    Actual social patterns that only approximate cultural expectations
  29. Technology
    The knowledge that people apply to the task of living in their surroundings
  30. Hunting and gathering societies
    • Use simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation
    • Society is built on kinship, and specialization is minimal, centered chiefly around age and gender
    • These societies are quite egalitarian and rarely wage war
  31. Horticultural and pastoral societies
    • employ a technology based on using hand tools to raise crops
    • Pastoralism: technology that supports the domestication of animals
  32. Agrarian societies
    • Based on agriculture: the technology of large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful sources of energy
    • These societies grow very large and inequality becomes more pronounced
  33. Industrial societies
    • Industrialism: the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery.
    • The growth of factories erodes many traditional values, beliefs, and customs
    • Prosperity and health improve dramatically
  34. High Culture
    refers to cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite
  35. Popular Culture
    Designates cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population
  36. Subculture
    Cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population
  37. Multiculturalism
    A perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the US and promoting the equality of all cultural traditions
  38. Counterculture
    Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
  39. Ethnocentrism
    The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
  40. Harry and Margaret Harlow's experimental work with rhesus monkeys
    All evidence points to the crucial importance of social experience in personality developement
  41. The most important socialization group
  42. Defining Adulthood
    Our society does not provide a clear rite of passage that marks the point of becoming an adult. This process does different significantly by class.
  43. How schooling introduces students to being evaluated according to universal standards
    • 1) Schools join with families in socializing children into gender roles
    • 2) The hidden curriculum passes on important cultural values, mostly implicity
  44. Peer Groups
    Members have interests, social position, and age in common
  45. Anticipatory socialization
    The process of social learning directed toward gaining a desired position. commonly occurs among peers
  46. Mass Media
    Impersonal communications directed at a vast audience
  47. Status
    Social position that an individual occupies
  48. Status set
    Consists of all the statuses a person holds at a given time
  49. Ascribed status
    A social position that someone receives at birth or takes on involuntarily later in life
  50. Achieved status
    A social position that someone takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort
  51. Master status
    A status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life
  52. Role
    Consists of behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status
  53. Role set
    A number of roles attached to a single status
  54. Role conflict
    Conflict among roles corresponding to two or more statuses
  55. Role strain
    Tension among the roles connected to a single status
  56. Role exit
    The process by which people disengage from important social roles
  57. Social Construction of Reality
    The process by which individuals creatively shape reality through social interaction
  58. Thomas Theorem (read through)
    Situations that are defined as real become real in their consequences
  59. Ethnomethodology (read through)
    A subfield of sociology developed by Harold Garfinkel, which is the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings
  60. Dramaturgical analysis (read through)
    • Developed by Erving Goffman
    • The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance
    • Presentation of self: a person's efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others
  61. Nonverbal Communication (read through)
    • Communication using body movements. gestures. and facial expressions rather than speech
    • Culture-specific
    • Effective way of telling if someone is telling the truth
    • Body language can contradict verbal communication
  62. Social group
    Two or more people who identify and interact with one another
  63. Primary group
    • A small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships
    • Families are primary groups
  64. Secondary groups
    • Large and interpersonal social groups devoted to some specific interest or activity
    • Involve weak emotional ties and are commonly short term
  65. Instrumental leadership
    Emphasizes the completion of tasks
  66. Expressive leadership
    Emphasizes collective well-being
  67. Authoritarian leadership
    Focuses on instrumental concerns, takes personal charge of decision-making, and demands strict compliance from subordinates
  68. Democratic leadership
    More expressive and tries to include everyone in the decision-making process
  69. Lassiez-Faire leadership
    Allows the group to function more or less on its own
  70. Asch's research into group conformity
    Showed that many of us are willing to compromise our own judgement and to avoid being different, even from people we do not know
  71. Milgram's research into obedience
    Suggests that people are likely to follow directions from not only "legitimate authority figures", but also groups of ordinary individuals, even when it means inflicting harm on another person
  72. Janis's research
    Dealt with a process called groupthink, the tendency of group members to conform by adopting a narrow view of some issue
  73. Reference group
    A social group that serves as a point of reference for people making evaluations or decisions
  74. In-group
    A social group commanding a member's esteem and loyalty
  75. Out-group
    A social group toward which one feels competition or opposition
  76. Dyad
    • Georg Simmel's term for a social group with two members
    • Social interaction is typically intense
    • Dyads are typically less stable than larger groups
  77. Triad
    • A social group with three members
    • Triads are more stable than dyads
    • any two members can form a majority coalition
  78. Bureaucracy
    • An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently
    • Became common during the Industrial Revolution
    • The informal side of bureaucracy is that members of organizations try to personalize their procedures and surroundings
  79. Max Weber's 6 key characteristics of bureaucracy:
    • Specialization
    • Hierarchy of offices
    • Rules and regulations
    • Technical competence
    • Impersonality
    • Formal, written communications
  80. Organizational environment
    A range of factors outside the organization that affects its operation, including: Technology, economic and political trends, population patterns, and other organizations
  81. Oligarchy
    Rule of the many by the few
  82. "Iron Law of Oligarchy"
    Refers to the pyramid shape of bureaucracy placing a few leaders in charge of organizational recources
  83. Scientific Management (Read Through)
    The application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization
  84. 3 steps of scientific management (Read Through)
    • 1)Managers observe the tasks performed by the workers
    • 2)Managers analyze their data to discover ways for workers to become more efficient
    • 3)Management provides guidance and incentives to workers to be more efficient
  85. The four principles of Mcdonaldization
    • Efficiency
    • Calculability
    • Uniformity and predictability
    • Control through automation
  86. The Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends
    • "Intelligent organizations" have become more productive than ever
    • The post industrial economy has created many highly skilled jobs, more routine service jobs and offers few of the benefits that today's highly skilled workers enjoy
    • Organizational "flexibility" that gives better-off workers more autonomy carries the threat of "downsizing" for rank-and-file employees
Card Set:
Sociology Exam 1
2015-02-08 18:31:53
MTC Sociology

Exam 1
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