Euro Test

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Euro Test
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Euro Test
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  1. Assignats
    money issued by National Assembly to stabilize the country
  2. Coup d’etat
    bloodless takeover of government
  3. Bastille
    people stormed the Bastille July 14, 1787. SYMBOLIC beginning of revolution because it represented government authority, people got away with it
  4. Montesquieu
    advocated a separation of powers between different branches of government.
  5. Women’s role
    limited by the men. Only men could vote, run for office, participate in gov’t
  6. Classical liberalism
    liberty meant individual freedoms, and political safeguards, equality meant equality before the law, not equality of political participation or wealth. ex bill of rights and constitution
  7. The Tithe
    a tax for the church. The church owned 10% of French land prior to the revolution
  8. Manorial rights
    noble privileges that dated back to feudal ages.
  9. National Assembly
    established by the middle class of the third estate, created a constitutional monarchy, made the tennis court oath
  10. Comte de Mirabeau
    National Assembly leader
  11. Abbe Sieyes
    wrote that France should be controlled by the people
  12. Causes of revolutionary outbreak:
    nobility demanded greater power and influence, wanted to share power with king (hated absolute monarchy)
  13. Bread
    the prices of Bread soared, which is really why the peasants initially supported the revolution, mobs full of women angry about bread prices marched to versailles and demanded that the King and Queen move to Paris
  14. Committee of Public Safety
    rid France of any internal opposition to the revolution
  15. Mary Wollstonecraft
    wrote that revolutionary ideals and liberty should extend to women, the immediate response to Declaration on rights of man… they left out women. It was called “Vindication on the rights of women”
  16. Declaration on rights of man
    constitution written by National Assembly
  17. Great Fear
    Revolutionary fervor spread among the peasants and caused disorder. The national assembly voted to make everyone equal before the eyes of the law.
  18. Reign of Terror
    committee of public safety took dictatorial control from national convention and began mass executions
  19. Thermidorian reaction
    middle class turned against committee of public safety, executed them, and took control of government back
  20. Government stages:
    national assembly, legislative assembly, national convention, committee, national convention, directory, empire (napoleon), constitutional monarchy
  21. Napoleon
    defeated by Holy Alliance at Battle of the Nations, exiled to Elba. Comes back, marking the hundred days, defeated at waterloo, dies on saint helena
  22. Immanuel Kant
    Enlightenment writer, revolt against extreme rationalism of philosophy, spoke about spirituality and God
  23. David Hume
    empiricism (knowledge comes from sensory experiences), the human mind is nothing but a bundle of impressions that arise from past experiences
  24. Edmund Burke
    founder of conservatism, whig party
  25. Gracchus Babeuf
    supported democracy, called out directory, first socialist ideas, said to take out private property and give it to everyone
  26. Charlotte Corday
    Stabbed Marat to death in his bathtub
  27. Girondists
    moderates of the first phase of the revolution
  28. mountain
    radicals
  29. Jacobins
    a political club including Robespierre, demanded a republic of the second phase
  30. Austerlitz
    most decisive and important battle of Napoleonic era
  31. Marie Antoinette
    Austrian wife of Louis XVI
  32. John Stuart Mill
    parliament, political side of utilitarianism (worth can be determined by how it will help people), wrote “On Liberty”
  33. Jean Paul Marat
    Member of committee of public safety
  34. Olympe de Gouges
    playright who wrote about abolishing slavery in the colonies and giving women equal treatment during the French Revolution. She was guillotined for challenging the revolutionary gov’t. Wrote “Declaration on the rights of women”
  35. Trafalgar
    navy win for British against French
  36. Continental System
    embargo against British by Napoleon
  37. corvee
    feudal services performed by peasants for nobility (2nd estate)
  38. gabelle
    salt tax
  39. cahiers
    written documents expressing the middle class’ discontent for the system
  40. Josephine de Beauharnais
    Napoleon’s wife who helped advance his career
  41. Directory
    a 5 man oligarchy, based on private property, gave power back to the aristocracy
  42. Napoleon
    put crown on his own head instead of a religious figure
  43. Laws of the Fourth of August
    National Assembly’s Laws
  44. consulate
    early napoleon control right after fall of Directory
  45. First large factories
    produced cotton textiles
  46. Steam engine
    different versions were developed by Thomas Savery, Thomas Newcomen, and James Watt
  47. Fredrich List
    argued that industry was vital for the defense of the nation
  48. Thomas Malthus
    Population always outgrows the food production
  49. First continental country to industrialize
    Belgium
  50. William Cockerill
    • illegally exported technology from Britain to make cotton spinning plant in Belgium
    • Prussia
    • supported industrialization by guaranteeing railroad bonds to attract investors
  51. Robert Owen
    utopian socialism, set up around world
  52. Class consciousness
    developed by Marx
  53. Early industrialists
    quakers and scots. Aristocracy didn’t capitalise on the new opportunities.
  54. Women
    relegated to second tier working jobs that paid less and were more menial
  55. Children
    worked from ages 8 or 9, many were illiterate, some worked naked and were sexually abused
  56. Jeremy Bentham
    father of utilitarianism (not political)
  57. Luddites
    Machine smashers, based on fictional “Ned Lud” character
  58. Eduard Bernstein
    father of evolutionary and revisionist socialism, social democracy, rejected lots of Marx’s work
  59. David Ricardo
    “Iron Law of Wages” wages will always stay low because there is so much demand for jobs that employers have no motivation to raise salaries
  60. Henry Bessemer
    created a very hot furnace… Bessemer’s furnace… hot enough to create steel
  61. Friedrich Engels
    Accused industrial class and government of murder
  62. George Stephenson
    invented the rocket which traveled at 16mph
  63. Chartists
    liberals who wanted universal male suffrage, secret ballots, and more voting rights, tried to get a candidate in but faded into the background
  64. Holy Alliance
    Prussia, Russia, Austria. All absolute monarchies.
  65. Quadruple Alliance
    Holy Alliance + GB, much more powerful
  66. Nationalism
    came about due to imagination of proponents and demands of industrialization
  67. Count de Saint-Simon
    Utopian Socialist
  68. Pierre Joseph Proudhon
    Property was virtually the same as theft because it was stolen from workers
  69. Charles Fourier
    advocated female emancipation
  70. English Corn Laws
    prohibited importing grain unless there was an emergency, only helped farmers, hurt poor, showed gov willing to compromise to stop revolutions
  71. End of romantic era
    revolutions of 1848
  72. Greece
    revolt because of British support, and nationalism in response to the Turkish domination
  73. Reform Bill
    gave 12% of men the right to vote, shifted representation
  74. Sturm and Drang
    German romanticism
  75. Legitimacy
    congress of vienna, especially Talleyrand, wanted “legitimate” monarchs ruling - monarchs who had been ruling before the french revolution
  76. Carlsbad Decrees
    censorship of German universities, issued by Metternich, no meetings, arrested leaders, it worked
  77. Jacque Louis David
    Painter that started the romantic movement with “Napoleon crossing the alps”
  78. Charles Fourier
    Utopian socialist, created the word feminism
  79. Louis Philippe
    Last monarch before 2nd French republic
  80. Louis Blanc
    Wanted national workshops, agency in which everyone gets a job
  81. Francesco Goya
    Showed France and overall war’s cruelty in Third of May
  82. Eugene Delacroix
    most famous romantic painter, strong emotions and characters, showed turks massacring greeks
  83. Greece
    only successful revolution
  84. Alexander I
    Russian Tzar, once allies then enemies with Napoleon, his idea was Holy Alliance, at congress of vienna
  85. Charter of 1814
    congress of vienna established the old france again by instituting the old monarchy
  86. Metternich
    Austria, dominated the congress, reactionary (turn back the clock), goal was to keep the balance of power so that no one nation gets too powerful, wanted to prevent revolutions and democracy, feared france
  87. Treaty of Paris
    1st was lenient, wanted to ensure Louis XVIII could rule successfully. 2nd was stricter, enforced an army in France until they paid debt back
  88. Carbonari
    led revolts in Italy
  89. Concert of Europe
    Effort of Europe to resolve international issues
  90. Hegel
    Follower of Kant, history represented God’s plan
  91. Cameralism
    german mercantilism and the plan to expand throughout Europe
  92. Peterloo
    English protesters unhappy with working conditions, militia broke it up, showed the early reluctance to listen to working class
  93. Charter of 1814
    France’s agreement with Europe after Napoleon,
  94. Louis Napoleon
    recognition got him elected as president, said he’d favor workers and industrialization, held plebiscite to become emperor, got the country in trouble with ego
  95. Alphonse Lamartine
    Led the moderate bourgeoisie favored provisional government
  96. Louis XVII
    Died in prison which is why Louis XVIII became the king after charter of 1814

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