Which do viruses mutate more rapidly in, RNA or DNA?
Viruses have high or low infectivity
2 effects of herpesviruses in terms of infection longevity
1) establishes latent infection
2) establishes life-long infections.
2 facts about anti-viral drugs
-few drugs exist that, because it's hard to target just them without targeting our own cells.
-Anti-viral drugs target virus-specific components and processes.
1) types of influenza virus (most common)
1) A (most common), B & C.
Define antigenic drift
minor mutations that accumulate over time
what is it called when:
-2 influenza viruses or segmented viruses infect one host cell
-Progeny of viruses from the cell contain a mixture of genomic segments from each of the viruses
-major 'mutation' that occurs instantaneously
-HUGE contributor to flue epidemics/pandemics
difference between antigenic drift and antigenic shift
1) Antigenic drift happens slowly over time, and major contributor to evolution.
2) antigenic shift happens instantly in a cell and are from 2 segmented viruses making 100's of different viruses.
how many phenotypes, and genotypes can occur from 1 influenza co-infection of antigenic shift (not counting random mutations)?
4 phenotypes, 256 genotypes
Primary and secondary disease of VZV
Primary: chickenpox, secondary: shingles
what causes clearance of chickenpox
innate immune system activates CD4, CD8 and B cels, making memory T and B cells.
Is someone vaccinated with VCV infected with the virus once immunized?
most likely yes. infection occurred but no symptoms appear.