1.11 Endocrine glands & hormones
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3 common characteristics of hypothalamus hormones:
- -work thru PKA or PKC system
- *bc they are protein hormones
-affect pituitary gland
9 hormones hypothalamus produces
Which of the 9 hormones made in hypo does not affect the anterior pit glanf (2)
Stimulates growth hormone
Inhibits growth hormone release
stimulate release of thyroid stimulating hormone
Stimulates release of ACTH
stimulate release of FSH, LH
Stimulates release of prolactin
Inhibits release of prolactin
Which 5 releasing hormones are sent down through portal system to ant gland?
Which 2 inhibitory hormones are sent down through portal system to ant pit gland
What's the purpose of the portal system?
So hypothalamus has a bloodstream to secrete its hormones
What are the 2 hormones that travel though the hypophyseal tract?
Oxytocin and ADH
Pathway of neuro hormones
-synthesized in cell bodies of neurons and gavel down axons of same neurons to post gland. Here they await signals at the axon terminal to be release into general blood stream
How many major hormones does ant pit gland release?
6 major hormones
What is the commonality between the 6 major hormones that ant pit secretes?
They are all proteins
How many of the major hormones from ant pit are tropic hormones?
Which are the 4 tropic hormones from ant pit galnd
What do tropic hormones do?
All 4 of these tropic hormones stimulate an endocrine gland to cause the release of a different hormone from the endocrine gland
Ant Pit gland) TSH AKA
Ant Pit gland) function of TSH
Stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone
Ant Pit gland) ACTH AKA
Ant Pit gland) ACTH function
Stimulates adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids
Ant Pit gland) FSH
Stimulates sperm or ovum production
- **stimulates testes/ovaries
Ant Pit gland) LH
stimulate production of testosterone and estrogen
Tropic hormones go to (4)
The remaining 2 hormones that are not tropic hormones do what?
- They directly stimulate a target tissue (not a endocrine gland)
- **such as bone, mammary gland
Growth hormone ) aka
Growth hormone ) what do they target?
-bone, muscle, liver, organ structure etc
Growth hormone ) works through
Growth hormone ) what are somatomedins?
Insulin-like growth factor that causes anabolic functions
Growth hormone ) 5 functions
-laying sulfur for chondroitin sulfate (bone)
-glycogen metabolism for storage
Prolactin) whatb does it target?
- Mammary gland
- *not tropic because it stimulates an exocrine not endocrine
-production of milk beginning, during, after pregnancy
Which are the 2 non-tropic hormones released from ant- pit gland?
GH & PRL
Although ant pit hormones are released in response to hypothalamic stimulation the amount that is released is also controlled by feedback mechanisms from the endocrine gland and or target organs
Regulation of tropic hormones involves
Negative feedback to hypothalamus and pituitary gland
Regulation of non-tropic hormones
Involves both negative and positive feedback to hypothalamus and pituitary gland
Regulation of TSH) steps (6)
1. TRH released by hypothalamus to portal system to Ant Pit
2. Ant Pit releases TSH
3. TSH enters general circulation but only picked up by thyroid gland bc it has receptors for it
4.thryoid gland is stimulated so it produces thyroid hormones
5.Thryoid hormone is relaxed into general circulation
- 6. Once thyroid levels are high, pit and hypo have receptors that will bind to thyroid & notify them that levels are high leading to decrease of TRH released which decrease TSH thus thyroid hormones
- *negative feedback
Regulation of ACTH) steps 5
1. Stress stimulates hypo to release CRH
2. CRH stimulates ANt pit to release ACTH
3. ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex
4. Adrenal cortex puts out glucocorticoids
5. Once again when glucocorticoids levels began to get high it will be sensed by ant and hypo triggering negative feedback to decrease the release of CRH and ACTH
Regulation of FSH, LH) steps 4
1. HYpo releases GnRH to Ant pit
2. Ant pit stimulated releasing FSH/LH
3. FSH/LH stimulates gonads causing them to release testosterone/estrogen
4.When levels get too high they will send negative feedback to Ant pit and Hypo
Regulation of GH) steps 5
1. Hypo releases GHRH into portal system to stimulate Ant Pit
2. Ant Pit releases GH and enters the blood stream
3. GH stimulates the target tissues
4. IGF-1 is released from target tissues
5. As igf-1 levels rise, IGF-1 and GH will inhibits GHRH thru negative feedback and stimulate GHIH to further inhibit GH & IGF-1
What's unique about the way GH inhibits GHRH?
As GH rises it inhibits GHRH from hypothalamus
***others go from glands to hypo not pit to hypo****
Regulation of prolactin) steps 3
1. PRH stimulates ant pit to release prolactin
2. Prolactin stimulates mammary gland causing production of milk
3. effect of nursing will positively feedback PRH to produce more PRH thus prolactin
Regulation of prolactin) levels of estrogen (2)
-levels of estrogen increase during pregnancy thus are responsible for stimulating PRH
-as levels of estrogen decrease, it will stimulate PIH decrease prolactin during milk production
neurohypophyseal hormones ) how many peptides are they made out of?
- Stimulates milk let down
- ***not production of milk
What transducers oxytocin?
- PKC system
- *its a protein hormones
Regulation of oxytocin) steps 4
1. Oxytocin produced in hypo
2.oxytocin is released in blood stream from post galnd
3. Stimulates mmary gland for milk let down
4. Sensation of baby nursing leads to positive feedback to stimulate more oxytocin production
Function of ADH (2)
Regulates water balance thru kidney
Tends to elevate blood pressure
Regulation of ADH) steps 3
1. ADH produced in hypo
2. adh is released from post gland to blood
3.stimulates kidney and urine output decreases
Regulation of ADH) Blood osmolality levels (2)
-when blood osmolality (concentration of blood) is high it will stimulate to produce ADH because if its high it means that there is not enough water in system so we don't want to secrete the low water in our system
-when its low, it means we are well hydrated because there is a lot of water in our blood so it inhibits ADH
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