1.11 Endocrine glands & hormones

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1.11 Endocrine glands & hormones
2015-02-06 13:18:44

Endocrine glands and hormones
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  1. 3 common characteristics of hypothalamus hormones:
    -protein hormones

    • -work thru PKA or PKC system
    • *bc they are protein hormones

    -affect pituitary gland
  2. 9 hormones hypothalamus produces








  3. Which of the 9 hormones made in hypo does not affect the anterior pit glanf (2)

  4. GHRH
    Stimulates growth hormone
  5. GHIH
    Inhibits growth hormone release
  6. TRH
    stimulate release of thyroid stimulating hormone
  7. CRH
    Stimulates release of ACTH
  8. GnRH (2)
    stimulate release of FSH, LH
  9. PRH (serotonin)
    Stimulates release of prolactin
  10. PIH (dopamine)
    Inhibits release of prolactin
  11. Which 5 releasing hormones are sent down through portal system to ant gland?




  12. Which 2 inhibitory hormones are sent down through portal system to ant pit gland

  13. What's the purpose of the portal system?
    So hypothalamus has a bloodstream to secrete its hormones
  14. What are the 2 hormones that travel though the hypophyseal tract?
    Oxytocin and ADH
  15. Pathway of neuro hormones
    -synthesized in cell bodies of neurons and gavel down axons of same neurons to post gland. Here they await signals at the axon terminal to be release into general blood stream
  16. How many major hormones does ant pit gland release?
    6 major hormones
  17. What is the commonality between the 6 major hormones that ant pit secretes?
    They are all proteins
  18. How many of the major hormones from ant pit are tropic hormones?
  19. Which are the 4 tropic hormones from ant pit galnd



  20. What do tropic hormones do?
    All 4 of these tropic hormones stimulate an endocrine gland to cause the release of a different hormone from the endocrine gland
  21. Ant Pit gland) TSH AKA
  22. Ant Pit gland) function of TSH
    Stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone
  23. Ant Pit gland) ACTH AKA
  24. Ant Pit gland) ACTH function
    Stimulates adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids
  25. Ant Pit gland) FSH
    Stimulates sperm or ovum production

    • **gonadotropins
    • **stimulates testes/ovaries
  26. Ant Pit gland) LH
    stimulate production of testosterone and estrogen

  27. Tropic hormones go to (4)
    -thyroid gland

    -adrenal cortex


  28. The remaining 2 hormones that are not tropic hormones do what?
    • They directly stimulate a target tissue (not a endocrine gland)
    • **such as bone, mammary gland
  29. Growth hormone ) aka
  30. Growth hormone ) what do they target?
    -bone, muscle, liver, organ structure etc
  31. Growth hormone ) works through
  32. Growth hormone ) what are somatomedins?
    Insulin-like growth factor that causes anabolic functions
  33. Growth hormone ) 5 functions
    -anabolic functions

    -protein synthesis

    -laying sulfur for chondroitin sulfate (bone)


    -glycogen metabolism for storage
  34. Prolactin) whatb does it target?
    • Mammary gland
    • *not tropic because it stimulates an exocrine not endocrine
  35. Prolactin) function
    -production of milk beginning, during, after pregnancy
  36. Which are the 2 non-tropic hormones released from ant- pit gland?
    GH & PRL
  37. Regulation
    Although ant pit hormones are released in response to hypothalamic stimulation the amount that is released is also controlled by feedback mechanisms from the endocrine gland and or target organs
  38. Regulation of tropic hormones involves
    Negative feedback to hypothalamus and pituitary gland
  39. Regulation of non-tropic hormones
    Involves both negative and positive feedback to hypothalamus and pituitary gland
  40. Regulation of TSH) steps (6)
    1. TRH released by hypothalamus to portal system to Ant Pit

    2. Ant Pit releases TSH

    3. TSH enters general circulation but only picked up by thyroid gland bc it has receptors for it

    4.thryoid gland is stimulated so it produces thyroid hormones

    5.Thryoid hormone is relaxed into general circulation

    • 6. Once thyroid levels are high, pit and hypo have receptors that will bind to thyroid & notify them that levels are high leading to decrease of TRH released which decrease TSH thus thyroid hormones
    • *negative feedback
  41. Regulation of ACTH) steps 5
    1. Stress stimulates hypo to release CRH

    2. CRH stimulates ANt pit to release ACTH

    3. ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex

    4. Adrenal cortex puts out glucocorticoids

    5. Once again when glucocorticoids levels began to get high it will be sensed by ant and hypo triggering negative feedback to decrease the release of CRH and ACTH
  42. Regulation of FSH, LH) steps 4
    1. HYpo releases GnRH to Ant pit

    2. Ant pit stimulated releasing FSH/LH

    3. FSH/LH stimulates gonads causing them to release testosterone/estrogen

    4.When levels get too high they will send negative feedback to Ant pit and Hypo
  43. Regulation of GH) steps 5
    1. Hypo releases GHRH into portal system to stimulate Ant Pit

    2. Ant Pit releases GH and enters the blood stream

    3. GH stimulates the target tissues

    4. IGF-1 is released from target tissues

    5. As igf-1 levels rise, IGF-1 and GH will inhibits GHRH thru negative feedback and stimulate GHIH to further inhibit GH & IGF-1
  44. What's unique about the way GH inhibits GHRH?
    As GH rises it inhibits GHRH from hypothalamus

    ***others go from glands to hypo not pit to hypo****
  45. Regulation of prolactin) steps 3
    1. PRH stimulates ant pit to release prolactin

    2. Prolactin stimulates mammary gland causing production of milk

    3. effect of nursing will positively feedback PRH to produce more PRH thus prolactin
  46. Regulation of prolactin) levels of estrogen (2)
    -levels of estrogen increase during pregnancy thus are responsible for stimulating PRH

    -as levels of estrogen decrease, it will stimulate PIH decrease prolactin during milk production
  47. neurohypophyseal hormones ) how many peptides are they made out of?
    9 A.A
  48. Oxytocin function
    • Stimulates milk let down
    • ***not production of milk

    Uterine contraction
  49. What transducers oxytocin?
    • PKC system
    • *its a protein hormones
  50. Regulation of oxytocin) steps 4
    1. Oxytocin produced in hypo

    2.oxytocin is released in blood stream from post galnd

    3. Stimulates mmary gland for milk let down

    4. Sensation of baby nursing leads to positive feedback to stimulate more oxytocin production
  51. ADH AKA
  52. Function of ADH (2)
    Regulates water balance thru kidney

    Tends to elevate blood pressure
  53. Regulation of ADH) steps 3
    1. ADH produced in hypo

    2. adh is released from post gland to blood

    3.stimulates kidney and urine output decreases
  54. Regulation of ADH) Blood osmolality levels (2)
    -when blood osmolality (concentration of blood) is high it will stimulate to produce ADH because if its high it means that there is not enough water in system so we don't want to secrete the low water in our system

    -when its low, it means we are well hydrated because there is a lot of water in our blood so it inhibits ADH