1.11.2 Endocrine Glands & Hormones II

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1.11.2 Endocrine Glands & Hormones II
2015-02-06 14:53:55

Endocrine & glands II
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  1. Thyroid gland) structure: lobes
    Has 2 lobes
  2. Thyroid gland) structure: isthmus
    Joins the lobes together
  3. Thyroid gland) structure: follicles
    Walls made of cuboidal cells
  4. Thyroid gland) follicles structure : what's inside them?
  5. Thyroid gland) follicles structure : what are colloids made from? (2)
    -thryoglobin + iodine
  6. Thyroid gland) follicles structure : what store in here?
    • Stored form of thyroid hormone
    • *it is made of both substances that create colloid
  7. Thyroid hormones made up of (2)
    -tyrosine and iodine
  8. 2 subtypes of thyroid hormones
    • -thyroxine T4
    • *converted into T3

    • -triiodothyronine T3
    • *most bio active
  9. What's difference between both subtypes of thyroid?
    # of iodine attached

    • T4=4
    • T3=3
  10. Synthesis of thyroid) 2 events happen simultaneously
    -formation & storage of thryoglobin

    -iodine trapping outside cell
  11. Synthesis of thyroid) in follicle cell,, thyroglobin synthesis begins with
    • Joining together of  many tyrosines
    • *they may be 70 long
  12. Synthesis of thyroid) side chains of tyrosine contain
    Aromatic ring and are exposed
  13. Synthesis of thyroid) what create thyroglobin?
    Follicular cells
  14. Synthesis of thyroid) thyroglobin is transported into
    colloid after it is made
  15. Synthesis of thyroid) where is iodine transported to
  16. Enzymes located in the membrane of follicular cell (at the side that faces the colloid)
    Places iodine onto the tyrosines
  17. How many iodine atoms bind on aromatic ring of the tyrosine side chains?
    1 or 2
  18. Multiple chains of tyrosine are
    Couples and this is tired in the colloid
  19. When thyroid hormone is needed,
    iodinated thryoglobain is endocytosed into the follicular cell
  20. Cutting of thryogbloin molecules is done by
    • Enzymes in lysosomes in follicular cells
    • *colloid to follicular cell to lysosomes
  21. Final product from cutting of thyroglobin is separate molecules of T3 & T4, these are
    Put into bloodstream where they are transported to target issues
  22. Transport and regulation) thyroxine binding globulin
    Protein produced in liver that binds to mostly t3 and some t4 to protect the hormones from degrading as they circulate the blood
  23. What do target tissues do with t4?
    They convert it to t3
  24. Regulation of TRH) steps 6
    1. TRH (T3/T4) released to stiulate ant gland

    2. Ant gland is timualted and releases TSH

    3. TSH stimulates thyroid gland to release thyroid hormone

    4. Thyroid hormones stimulates all tissues

    5. All tissues can inhibit TRH production if there is an increased in body temperature

    6. If there is too much thyroid hormone it can inhibit TSH and TRH.
  25. Mechanism of action of thyroid hormone ) intracellular receptors
    • Even though it is A.A based product, it goes inside the cell and bins with intracellular receptor mimicking the transduction mechanism of a steroid hormone
    • *only exception
  26. Thyroid hormone functions (8)
    -metabolic rate

    -CHO/LIPID metabolism

    -neural development

    • -cardiac function
    • -skeletal and muscle growth

    -GI motility

    -reproduction function and lactation

    -secretory activity of skin
  27. Thyroid hormone function) metabolic rate
    • Enzymes within us begin to function more rapidly causing reactions to occur rapidly
    • Ex) glycolysis quicker with thyroid
  28. Thyroid hormone function) CHO and lipid metabolism
    CHO and lips metabolism would occurs more rapidly bc of enzymes functioning more rapidly
  29. Thyroid hormone function) neural development
    During embryological development, nervous system highly dependent on thyroid for normal development growth
  30. Thyroid hormone function) cardiac fucntion
    • Dependent on thyroid
    • *too much thyroid causes rapid heartbeat
    • *too little slows it down
  31. Thyroid hormone function) skeletal and muscle growth
    No normal growth during childhood without thyroid bc thryid assist GH with production of skeletal muscle growth
  32. Thyroid hormone function) GI motility
    Assists in moving food along tract for digestion
  33. Thyroid hormone function) reproduction function and lactation
    In the background
  34. Thyroid hormone function) secretory of skin
    Assist in sebum, sweat, etc

    • **too little thyroid = dry skin
    • **too much= sweaty
  35. Calcitonin) function (2)
    -inhibits osteoclast activity

    -regulates blood calcium by increasing uptake by bone
  36. Is calcitonin regulated by hypo and pit?
  37. When calcitonin is realased what does it target?
  38. Regulation of calcitonin) steps (3)
    1. Calcitonin will be to stimulate bone

    2. If there is high blood calcium, then it will positively feedback to produce more

    3. If there is low blood calcium, then it will inhibit calcitonin
  39. Parathyroid glands) 2 types of cells
    -oxyphil cells

    -chief cells
  40. Parathyroid glands) what do oxyphil cells do?
    We don't know
  41. Parathyroid glands) what do chief cells do?
    Produces Parathyroid hormone
  42. Parathyroid hormone ) function (3)
    Increase osteoclast activity

    kidney calcium reabsorption

    Calcium absorption from digestive tract

    ***antagonistic to calcitonin
  43. What is the result form the 3 functions parathyroid hormone ?
    Increase blood calcium
  44. Parathyroid hormone ) mechanism of aciton
  45. Regulation ) steps (3)
    1. Parathyroid hormone relaxed from endocrine gland to stimulates target tissues

    2. If low calcium blood then it will stimulate more parathyroid hormone

    3. If high blood calcium, then it will inhibit parathyroid hormone production

    *not regulated by hypo or pit
  46. Where are mineralocorticoids produced
  47. Mineralocorticoids produce
  48. Function of aldosterone
    Regulates amount of plasma sodium concentration
  49. Where is glucocorticoids produced?
  50. What are the 3 types of glucocorticoids?


  51. Glucocorticoids functions (4)
    -decrease inflammation

    -increase plasma glucose

    -increase gluconeogenesis

    -increase lipolysis
  52. Glucocorticoids ) mechanism
    Modify gene activity and increased protein sysntheissi
  53. Glucocorticoids ) mechanism: modify gene activty
  54. Glucocorticoids ) mechanism: increased protein synthesis
  55. Glucocorticoids ) mechanism: how are the acitivitre achieved?
    The PRoteins that are synthesized are enzymes that perform the activities listed on the previous slide
  56. Regulation of glucocorticoids ) steps (6)
    1. Hypo releases CRH

    2. CRH stimulates pit, causing it to release ACTH

    3. ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex where glucocorticoids reside

    4. gluco corticoids stimulate many tissues

    5. As glucocorticoids rises, ACTH and CRH are inhibited

    6. Also stress stimulated CRH production
  57. Gonadotropin) where is it found?
  58. What are the 2 types of gonadotropin?

  59. Regulation of gonadocorticoids )
    1. Hypo releases CRH to stimulate pit

    2. Pit simulated releases ACTH

    3. ACTH stimulus estrogens/androgens.

    • 4. Estrogens and androgens stimulate skeletal system, integument, brain
    • *stimulates small amounts of and or and estro for essential purposes in opposite sex like sex drive

    5. If estrog and Andre levels high, then they will inhibit ACTH and crh
  60. Adrenal medullary hormones ) chrmoaffin cells release (2)

  61. What are epinephrine and norepehionehre contorled by?
  62. What is the control for chromaffin cells?
  63. chromaffin cells involved in
    Stress situations