Equipment Operation and Quality Control Principles of radiation physics

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Equipment Operation and Quality Control Principles of radiation physics
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2015-02-07 01:09:51
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Equipment Operation Quality Control Principles radiation physics
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Equipment Operation and Quality Control Principles of radiation physics
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  1. How many half-value layers will it take to reduce an x-ray beam whose intensity is 78 R/min to an intensity of less than 10 R/min?




     




     




     




     
    8
    •  
    •  
    • 3
  2. With three-phase equipment, the voltage across the x-ray tube

    1. drops to zero every 180 degrees

    2. is 87% to 96% of the maximum value

    3. is at nearly constant potential






     

     
    1 only 



     

     
    2 only 



     

     
    1 and 2 only 

          

     
    2 and 3 only 
    •  
    •  
    • 2 and 3 only 
  3. Which of the following affect(s) both the quantity and quality of the primary beam?

    1. Half-value layer (HVL)

    2. Kilovoltage

    3. Milliamperage






     
    1 only 



     
    2 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3 
    •  
    •  
    • 1 and 2 only 
  4. Figure 5–7 illustrates the








     
    inverse-square law 



     
    line-focus principle 



     
    reciprocity law 



     
    anode heel effect 
    •  
    •  
    • line-focus principle 
  5. Characteristics of the metallic element tungsten include

    1. ready dissipation of heat

    2. high melting point

    3. high atomic number






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3 
    •  
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3 
  6. How many half-value layers will it take to reduce an x-ray beam whose intensity is 78 R/min to an intensity of less than 10 R/min?




     




     




     




     
    •  
    •  
    • 3
  7. Which of the following is most closely related to Figure 5–10?








     
    low kV 



     
    high kV 



     
    low mA 



     
    high mA 
    •  
    •  
    • high kV 
  8. In ____, a high-energy (high kilovoltage) x-ray photon ejects an outer-shell electron in tissue or other absorber.
    Compton scatter
  9. Which of the following occurs during Bremsstrahlung (Brems) radiation production?




     
    An electron makes a transition from an outer to an inner electron shell. 



     
    An electron approaching a positive nuclear charge changes direction and loses energy. 



     
    A high-energy photon ejects an outer-shell electron. 



     
    A low-energy photon ejects an inner-shell electron. 
    •  
    •  
    • An electron makes a transition from an outer to an inner electron shell. 
  10. Most of the primary beam is made up of _____radiation
    Brems 
  11. The electron cloud within the x-ray tube is the product of a process called




     
    electrolysis 



     
    thermionic emission 



     
    rectification 



     
    induction 
    •  
    •  
    • thermionic emission
  12. The effective energy of an x-ray beam is increased by increasing the

    1. added filtration

    2. kilovoltage

    3. milliamperage






     
    1 only 



     
    2 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3 
    •  
    •  
    • 1 and 2 only
  13. An increase in _____ serves to increase the number of photons produced at the target but is unrelated to their energy. 
    milliamperage
  14. If exposure factors of 85 kVp, 400 mA, and 12 ms yield an output exposure of 150 mR, what is the milliroentgens per milliampere-seconds (mR/mAs)?




     
    0.32 



     
    3.1 



     
    17.6 



     
    31 
    •  
    •  
    • 31 
  15. Which of the following is most likely to occur as a result of using a 30-in. SID with a 14 × 17 in. IR to radiograph a fairly homogeneous structure?




     
    Production of quantum mottle 



     
    Density variation between opposite ends of the IR 



     
    Production of scatter radiation fog 



     
    Excessively short-scale contrast 
    •  
    •  
    • Density variation between opposite ends of the IR 
  16. To be used more efficiently by the x-ray tube, alternating current is changed to unidirectional current by the




     
    filament transformer. 



     
    autotransformer. 



     
    high-voltage transformer. 



     
    rectifiers. 
    •  
    •  
    • rectifiers. 
  17. Characteristics of x-ray photons include

    1. a penetrating effect on all matter

    2. an ionizing effect on air

    3. travelling at the speed of sound






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3 
    •  
    •  
    • 1 and 2 only 
  18. The line-focus principle refers to the fact that




     
    the actual focal spot is larger than the effective focal spot 



     
    the effective focal spot is larger than the actual focal spot 



     
    x-rays travel in straight lines 



     
    x-rays cannot be focused 
    •  
    •  
    • the actual focal spot is larger than the effective focal spo
  19. With three-phase equipment, the voltage across the x-ray tube

    1. drops to zero every 180 degrees

    2. is 87% to 96% of the maximum value

    3. is at nearly constant potential






     
    1 only 



     
    2 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 
    •  
    •  
    • 2 and 3 only 
  20. What is the relationship between kV and HVL?




     
    As kV increases, the HVL increases. 



     
    As kV increases, HVL decreases 



     
    If the kV is doubled, the HVL doubles. 



     
    If the kV is doubled, the HVL is squared. 
    •  
    •  
    • As kV increases, the HVL increases.
  21. To eject a K-shell electron from a tungsten atom, the incoming electron must have an energy of at least




     
    60 keV. 



     
    70 keV. 



     
    80 keV. 



     
    90 keV. 
    •  
    •  
    • 70 keV.
  22. Which of the following does Figure 5–6 represent?








     
    Compton scatter 



     
    Bremsstrahlung radiation 



     
    Photoelectric effect 



     
    Characteristic radiation 
    •  
    •  
    • Bremsstrahlung radiation
  23. Which of the following is (are) characteristics of the x-ray tube?

    1. The target material should have a high atomic number and a high melting point.

    2. The useful beam emerges from the port window.

    3. The cathode assembly receives both low and high voltages.






     
    1 only 



     
    2 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3 
    •  
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3 
  24. An increase in the kilovoltage applied to the x-ray tube increases the

    1. percentage of high-energy photons produced.

    2. beam intensity.

    3. patient absorption.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3 
    •  
    •  
    • 1 and 2 only 
  25. Which of the following terms describes the amount of electric charge flowing per second?




     
    Voltage 



     
    Current 



     
    Resistance 



     
    Capacitan
    •  
    •  
    • Current 

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