Radiology Chapters 1-4

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Radiology Chapters 1-4
2015-02-07 18:33:25
Radiology Test

Radiology test 1 Info
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  1. OFA meaning
    Orthopedic Foundation for Animals
  2. Energy carried by waves or a stream of particles
  3. Method of transporting energy through space
    EX: X-ray
    Electromagnetic radiation
  4. Form of electromagnetic radiation similar to visible light but of shorter wavelength
  5. Number of x-rays traveling together through space at rapid speed
    X-ray beam
  6. What is the only material that radiation cannot pentrate
    Lead, absorbs radiation
  7. X-rays cause 2 biological changes
    • 1) Somatic (body, cells)
    • 2) Genetic (reproduction, organs)
  8. Cathode charge
  9. Anode charge
  10. Energy that powers cathode
  11. Metal that makes filament
    Tungsten (high atomic number)
  12. Focusing cup made out of what metal
  13. Energy that powers anode
  14. Anode made out of what metal
  15. Target made out of what metal
  16. 2 anode types
    • 1) Stationary anode (on portable machine)
    • 2) Rotating anode (on stationary machine)
  17. Center of the tube housing (between cathode and anode) called what
  18. What type of barrier between glass case and lead wall
    Oil barrier
  19. Controls how many electrons released
  20. Controls the power behind c-ray production
  21. Problems that can occur with x-ray machine
    • 1) Filament failure 
    • 2) Bearing damage of rotating anode
  22. What type of radiation do x-rays give off
    Ionizing radiation
  23. When were x-rays discovered?
    November 8, 1895
  24. Who and where were x-rays discovered?
    Wilhelm Roentgen in Wurzburg, Germany
  25. Where were x-rays first used?
    Photography studios
  26. Source image distance for our unit
  27. The distance between the source of the radiation (anode) and the image receptor
    Source Image Distance (SID)
  28. MilliAmperage
    Controls the blackness or density of the background
  29. mA range of our unit
    50-300 mA
  30. Kilovoltage Peak
    Controls the contrast of the structures
  31. Kilovolatge range
    0-130, commonly used 40-90
  32. Exposure time measured in
    Fraction of seconds
  33. MAs =
    MilliAmperage X time
  34. Santes Rule
    (2 X thickness) + 40 = kVp

    (2 X 12) + 40= 64 kVp
  35. What does the anode consist of?
    • 1) Target
    • 2) Rotating anode tubes
    • 3) Stator 
    • 4) Rotor
  36. Metal that abruptly decelerates and stops electrons at anode, thereby allowing production of x-rays
  37. Electric motor that turn the rotor at very high speed during x-ray production
  38. Rotates the anode in x-ray tube, contained withing the glass envelope of the tube
  39. Cathode comprised of
    • 1) Filament
    • 2) Focusing cup
  40. Coiled tungsten wire that is source of electrons during x-ray production
  41. Device in x-ray tube positioned to focus the stream of electrons, has negative charge which maintains the direction of the electron cloud
    Focusing cup
  42. Device located below the tube window that has 2 or 3 sets of lead shutters. The variable entrance shutters limits the x-ray beam to the size of the image receptor
  43. Acute health effects of radiation
    • 1) Burns
    • 2) Radiation sickness
  44. Radiation sickness AKA
    Radiation poisoning
  45. Safe levels of radiation
  46. Radiation protection basis
    • 1) Time
    • 2) Distance
    • 3) Shielding
  47. Time
    Low amounts of time, ultra short exposure
  48. Distance
    Furthest from beam safer it is
  49. Shielding
    Aprons, gloves, thyroid guard, etc.
  50. Radiation dose limit
    .05  SV
  51. Radiation dose old term
    Roentgen Equivalent Man (REM)
  52. In the U.S., doses are most commonly reported in?
    Millirem (mrem)
  53. mrem: REM ratio
  54. Radiation dose newest term
    Sieverts (Sv)
  55. Sv: REM ratio
    (1 Sv = 100 rem
  56. Form that must be kept on file in clinic
    Regulatory Guide 4.5
  57. Every facility must have an RSO, meaning?
    Radiation Safety Officer
  58. X-ray monitoring device must be worn where?
    Collar outside of lead apron
  59. Red lamp must be how many feet from work area?
    4 ft
  60. What determines how much mA to use?
    Tissue density of area being x-rayed
  61. If doing a lateral x-ray the head much be where?
    On the left
  62. On lateral abdomen x-ray want to see where to where?
    Acetabulum to liver
  63. When to take abdomen x-ray
    When animal is on full expiration
  64. When to take thoracic x-ray
    on full inspiration
  65. When does scatter radiation occur
    With to much kVp
  66. Items on x-ray other than bones and organs
  67. Stomach always on which side of x-ray
  68. Snow on x-ray means
    Bad intensifying screen inside the cassette