Radiology Chapters 1-4
Card Set Information
Radiology Chapters 1-4
Radiology test 1 Info
Orthopedic Foundation for Animals
Energy carried by waves or a stream of particles
Method of transporting energy through space
Form of electromagnetic radiation similar to visible light but of shorter wavelength
Number of x-rays traveling together through space at rapid speed
What is the only material that radiation cannot pentrate
Lead, absorbs radiation
X-rays cause 2 biological changes
1) Somatic (body, cells)
2) Genetic (reproduction, organs)
Energy that powers cathode
Metal that makes filament
Tungsten (high atomic number)
Focusing cup made out of what metal
Energy that powers anode
Anode made out of what metal
Target made out of what metal
2 anode types
1) Stationary anode (on portable machine)
2) Rotating anode (on stationary machine)
Center of the tube housing (between cathode and anode) called what
What type of barrier between glass case and lead wall
Controls how many electrons released
Controls the power behind c-ray production
Problems that can occur with x-ray machine
1) Filament failure
2) Bearing damage of rotating anode
What type of radiation do x-rays give off
When were x-rays discovered?
November 8, 1895
Who and where were x-rays discovered?
Wilhelm Roentgen in Wurzburg, Germany
Where were x-rays first used?
Source image distance for our unit
The distance between the source of the radiation (anode) and the image receptor
Source Image Distance (SID)
Controls the blackness or density of the background
mA range of our unit
Controls the contrast of the structures
0-130, commonly used 40-90
Exposure time measured in
Fraction of seconds
MilliAmperage X time
(2 X thickness) + 40 = kVp
(2 X 12) + 40= 64 kVp
What does the anode consist of?
2) Rotating anode tubes
Metal that abruptly decelerates and stops electrons at anode, thereby allowing production of x-rays
Electric motor that turn the rotor at very high speed during x-ray production
Rotates the anode in x-ray tube, contained withing the glass envelope of the tube
Cathode comprised of
2) Focusing cup
Coiled tungsten wire that is source of electrons during x-ray production
Device in x-ray tube positioned to focus the stream of electrons, has negative charge which maintains the direction of the electron cloud
Device located below the tube window that has 2 or 3 sets of lead shutters. The variable entrance shutters limits the x-ray beam to the size of the image receptor
Acute health effects of radiation
2) Radiation sickness
Radiation sickness AKA
Safe levels of radiation
Radiation protection basis
Low amounts of time, ultra short exposure
Furthest from beam safer it is
Aprons, gloves, thyroid guard, etc.
Radiation dose limit
Radiation dose old term
Roentgen Equivalent Man (REM)
In the U.S., doses are most commonly reported in?
mrem: REM ratio
Radiation dose newest term
Sv: REM ratio
(1 Sv = 100 rem
Form that must be kept on file in clinic
Regulatory Guide 4.5
Every facility must have an RSO, meaning?
Radiation Safety Officer
X-ray monitoring device must be worn where?
Collar outside of lead apron
Red lamp must be how many feet from work area?
What determines how much mA to use?
Tissue density of area being x-rayed
If doing a lateral x-ray the head much be where?
On the left
On lateral abdomen x-ray want to see where to where?
Acetabulum to liver
When to take abdomen x-ray
When animal is on full expiration
When to take thoracic x-ray
on full inspiration
When does scatter radiation occur
With to much kVp
Items on x-ray other than bones and organs
Stomach always on which side of x-ray
Snow on x-ray means
Bad intensifying screen inside the cassette