Radiology Chapters 5-7

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Kristenw
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295200
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Radiology Chapters 5-7
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2015-02-07 19:15:59
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Radiology chapters 5-7
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  1. Ease by which you see details in a radiograph
    Radiographic quality
  2. Radiographic quality depends on 3 things
    • 1) Density
    • 2) Contrast
    • 3) Geometric factors
  3. Degree of blackness on radiograph
    Radiographic density
  4. Density is influence by what?
    • Quantity and quality of of the x-ray beam 
    • Type and thickness of tissue
  5. Factors that effect radiographic density(4)
    • 1) Total number of x-rays
    • 2) Penetrating power
    • 3) Developing time
    • 4) Developer temperature
  6. The visible difference between adjacent radiographic densities
    Radiogrpahic contrast
  7. 2 categories of radiographic contrast
    • 1) Radiographic contrast
    • 2) Subject contrast
  8. Radiographic contrast influenced by:
    • 1) Subject contrast
    • 2) kVp level
    • 3) Scatter radiation
    • 4) Film type
    • 5) Film fog
  9. The density difference between adjacent anatomic structures.  There should be varying shades of black, gray and white
    Subject contrast
  10. If insufficient kVp is used the film will have what appearance?
    Overall gray appearance
  11. Non-image forming radiation that is a result of the primary beam not being focused on the
    patient or being delivered at to high a rate
    Scatter radiation
  12. A device placed between the patient and the film that is designed to absorb scatter radiation
    Grid
  13. What is a grid composed of?
    Alternating lead strips and spacer material
  14. Types of grids
    • 1) Linear 
    • 2) Crossed 
    • 3) Focused 
    • 4) Unfocused
  15. Device that is built into the table to hold the grid and allows the grid to move across the beam.  This will eliminate lines and helps to absorb the radiation
    Potter-Bucky Diaphragm
  16. Geometric distortion
    • 1) Elongation
    • 2) Foreshortening
  17. A rigid film holder designed to hold the film and intensifying screens in close contact
    Cassette
  18. Cassettes can be made from:
    • 1) Polycarbonate
    • 2) Aluminum
    • 3) Magnesium
    • 4) Carbon fiber
  19. Back of cassette usually made of what
    Lead
  20. Small rectangular area in corner of cassette that prevents exposure to that area for imprinting purposes
    Lead blocker
  21. Cassette sizes
    • 8 X 10
    • 10 X 12
    • 11 X 14
    • 14 X 17
  22. 2 ways cassettes can be damaged
    • 1) Dropping it
    • 2) Spilling fluid inside cassette
  23. Reduces the amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the Latent Image
    Intensifying screens
  24. What percentage of latent image should be produced by intensifying screens
    95%
  25. Intensifying screens composed of
    Luminescent phosphor crystals bound together and mounted on a plastic base
  26. Intensifying screen layers
    • 1) Support/base
    • 2) Reflective layer
    • 3) Phosphor crystal layer
    • 4) Protective coating
  27. Screen types
    • 1) Calcium tungsten 
    • 2) Rare earth
  28. Calcium tungsten screens
    Developed in 1896 by Thomas Edison, blue light sensitive
  29. Rare earth screens
    Developed in 1972, green light sensitive
  30. Screen speeds
    • 1) Slow – high definition, maximum detail
    • 2) Medium– most commonly used in veterinary medicine
    • 3) Fast–reduce exposure times, thick tissue
    • densities
  31. What is the purpose of the film?
    To create a permanent record
  32. Film composition
    • 1) Base
    • 2) Emulsion
    • 3) Silver halide
    • 4) Supercoat
  33. Film types
    • 1) Screen film
    • 2) Non-screen film
  34. Film speed
    • 1) Slow
    • 2) Medium, commonly used
    • 3) Fast
  35. Film care
    • 1) Store vertically
    • 2) Low humidity 
    • 3) Room temperature 
    • 4) Be aware of expiration date
  36. Imprinter card information
    • 1) Clinic info
    • 2) Clients name
    • 3) Patients name
    • 4) Breed, age, sex
    • 5) Radiograph info (date, mA, kPv)
  37. Evaluation form information
    • 1) Group/Radiograph number
    • 2) Density/Contrast evaluation
    • 3) Positioning/boundaries
    • 4) Overall assessment
    • 5) How to improve

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