Radiology chapters 8 and 17

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Kristenw
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295202
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Radiology chapters 8 and 17
Updated:
2015-04-28 17:48:45
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Radiology chapters 8 and 17
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  1. When evaluating film 4 questions should be asked
    • 1) Film to light/dark
    • 2) Proper penetration
    • 3) Suitable density 
    • 4) Appropriate contrast
  2. Collimation means
    Boundaries
  3. Positioning means
    Animals position (Spine straight)
  4. Underexposed x-ray film is to
    Light
  5. Overexposed x-ray film is to
    Dark
  6. Inadequate penetration
    Film is to light, increase kPv by 10-15%
  7. Overpenetration
    Film to to dark, too much kVp
  8. Insufficient film density
    Film to light, not enough blackness and density needs to increase, increase mAs by 30-50%
  9. Excessive film density
    Film to dark, decrease mAs by 30-50%
  10. High kVp responsible for
    Low contrast, film appears overall grey
  11. Low kVp responsible for
    High contrast and produced more blacks and whites on film
  12. Primary factor used when evaluating overexposed radiograph
    Contrast
  13. For soft tissues what kind of contrast needed
    Low contrast
  14. For bones what kind of contrast needed
    High contrast
  15. Dorsal
    Back of animal
  16. Ventral
    Stomach of animal
  17. Medial
    Midline of body
  18. Caudal
    Bottom half of animal
  19. Cranial
    Head of animal
  20. Palmar
    Back of front leg
  21. Plantar
    Rear side of hind leg
  22. Proximal
    Closest to point of origin
  23. Distal
    Farthest from point of origin
  24. Superior/Inferior
    Upper and lower dental arcades
  25. Lateral
    Outwards of the body
  26. Mediolateral
    Beam enters limb through medial side and exits on lateral side
  27. Lateromedial
    Beam enters limb through lateral side and exits on medial side
  28. Primary goal for positioning of patient
    Most suitable posture for animal from which accurate reproduction of the anatomic area can be produced
  29. When positioning animal must consider
    • 1) Welfare of patient
    • 2) Restraint and immobilization of patient
    • 3) Minimize trauma to area of interest
    • 4) Minimize risk of exposure to people assisting
  30. Tool used to measure thickness in cm of area to be radiographed
    Caliper
  31. If not sure where to measure then measure the
    Thickest area
  32. How many views to take
    2
  33. Too much variation in temperature of developer, water and fixer results in
    Reticulation
  34. Developer composed of
    • 1) Developing agents
    • 2) Accelerators 
    • 3) Preservatives
    • 4) Restrainers
    • 5) Hardeners
    • 6) Solvent
  35. Developer ph
    Basic
  36. Ideal temperature for developing film
    68 degrees
  37. Rinse bath rinses developer to prevent
    Neutralizing the fixer
  38. Fixer 2 purposes
    • 1) Clears unexposed silver
    • 2) Hardens gelatin coating (fixation)
  39. Fixation time is how many times longer than developing time
    2 times longer
  40. Fixer composed of
    • 1) Clearing/fixing agents 
    • 2) Preservatives 
    • 3) Hardeners
    • 4) Acidifiers
    • 5) Buffers
    • 6) Solvent
  41. Darkroom fog caused by
    • 1) White light leaks from door
    • 2) Improper wattage bulb
    • 3) Cracked safelight
    • 4) Improper safelight filter use
    • 5) Safelight to close to counter 
    • 6) Improper chemical temperature 
    • 7) Improper chemical balance

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