Radiology Test 1

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Author:
jill.hinton
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295205
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Radiology Test 1
Updated:
2015-02-10 20:44:30
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vet tech radiology
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vet tech radiology
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  1. Energy carried by waves or a stream of particles:
    radation
  2. Method of transporting energy through space. X-ray:
    Electromagnetic radiation
  3. A form of electromagnetic radiation similar to visible light but of shorter wavelength:
    X-ray
  4. A number of x-rays traveling together through space at a rapid speed:
    X-ray beam
  5. Physical properties of X-rays
    _______ is variable and is related to the energy of the radiation.
    Wavelength
  6. The travel of an X-ray is:
    Straight line
  7. X-rays are able to penetrate materials that absorb or reflect_____.
    Visible light
  8. Certain substances will _______ after absorbing electromagnetic radiation
    Fluoresce
  9. X-rays produce an invisible image on photographic film that can be made visible by_______.
    Processing film
  10. X-rays can cause ________ in living tissue.
    Biological changes
  11. Discovery of the x-ray:
    >Who?
    >Where?
    >When?
    • > Wilhelm Roentgen
    • > Wurzburg, Germany
    • > 1895
  12. X-rays were originally called:
    Roentgen rays
  13. X-rays can cause 2 different biological changes to living tissue:
    >________ cells in the body
    >________ reproductive cells
    • > somatic
    • > genetic
  14. __________, the ease by which you see a radiograph. Depends on density, contrast, and geometric factors.
    Radiographic quality
  15. The degree of blackness of a radiograph. It is influenced by the quantity and quality of the x-ray beam as well as type and ______ of the tissue. What is it?
    Radiographic density
  16. Factors affecting density:
    • > total number of x-rays
    • > penetrating power of the x-ray
    • > developing time
    • > developer temperature
  17. The visible difference between adjacent radiographic densities. Two categories:
    >
    >
    • Radiographic contrast
    • Subject contrast
  18. Radiographic contrast is influenced by:
    >
    >
    >
    >
    >
    • > subject contrast
    • > kVp level
    • > scatter radiation
    • > film type
    • > film fog
  19. The density difference between adjacent anatomic structures. There should be varying shades of black, gray and white.
    subject contrast
  20. The mA's will affect contrast only when _______ or ________ mA's is used. When a correct mA's is used the contrast is dependent on the _____ setting.
    • > excessive, insufficient
    • > kVp
  21. kVp can affect both ______ and ______. If insufficient kVp is used the film will have an overall _______ appearance and subject contrast is _____. If excessive kVp is used ________ will be evident; film being too dark or "burned".
    • >contrast, density
    • >gray, low
    • >scatter radiation
  22. Non-image forming radiation that is a result of the primary beam not being focused on the patient or being delivered at to high a rate.
    Scatter radiation
  23. To prevent scatter radiation you must use:
    >
    >
    >
    • >appropriate kVp>appropriately collimate
    • >utilize a grid in tissue densities over 10cm
  24. A device placed between the patient and the film that is designed to absorb scatter radiation.
    Grids
  25. Composed of alternating lead strips and spacer material, may be as many as _____ lead strips. It is designed to allow the majority of the primary beam to reach the patient while absorbing unused radiation.
    • Grids
    • >1500
  26. Types of grids:
    >
    >
    >
    >
    • > linear grid
    • > crossed grid
    • > focused grid
    • > unfocused grid
  27. Device that is built into the table to hold the grid and allows the grid to move across the beam. This will eliminate line and helps to absorb the radiation.
    Potter-bucky diaphragm
  28. Two examples of geometric distortion:
    >
    >
    • >elongation
    • >foreshortening
  29. A rigid film holder designed to hold the film and intensifying screens in close contact.
    Cassette
  30. Cassettes can be made from:
    >
    >
    >
    the back is normally made of _____ to absorb scatter.
    • >polycarbonate
    • >aluminum
    • >magnesium, and carbon fiber
    • >lead
  31. Some cassettes have a small rectangular area in one corner called a _______. It's purpose is to not allow exposure to that area for imprinting purposes.
    Lead blocker
  32. Cassette sizes vary, but the ones we use at Tomball are:
    • >8x10
    • >10x12
    • >11x14
    • >14x17
  33. Cassettes can be damaged in two ways:
    >
    >
    • >dropping the cassette
    • >spilling fluid onto cassette
  34. _____ are luminescent phosphor crystals bound together and mounted on a plastic base.
    Intensifying screens
  35. The purpose of intensifying screens is to reduce the amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the __________. The use of screens results in ________. ___% should be produced by the intensifying screen.
    • >Latent image
    • >lower mA usage
    • >95%
  36. Screen layers within a cassette:
    >
    >
    >
    >
    • >support or base
    • >reflective layer
    • >phosphor crystal layer
    • >protective coating
  37. Screen types:
    >______ developed in 1896 by Thomas Edison. Blue light sensitive
    >______ developed in 1972. Green light sensitive
    • >calcium tungsten
    • >rare earth
  38. Screen speed:
    >slow -
    >medium -
    >fast -
    • >high definition, maximum detail
    • >most commonly used in veterinary medicine
    • >reduce exposure times, thick tissue densities
  39. Purpose is to create a permanent record
    film
  40. Film composition:
    >
    >
    >
    >
    • >base
    • >emulsion
    • >silver halide
    • >supercoat
  41. Film types:
    >
    >
    • >screen film
    • >non-screen film
  42. Film speed: (most widely used)
    >
    >
    >
    • >slow
    • >medium - widely used
    • >fast
  43. Proper film care:
    >
    >
    >
    >
    • >store vertically
    • >low humidity
    • >room temperature
    • >awareness of expiration date
  44. Before we had imprinter cards we had:
    >
    >
    • > lead tape
    • > lead markers
  45. Boundaries for a thoracic x-ray:
    >______ and ______
    > scapular-humoral joint and thoracic vertebrae
  46. When developing, the rule of thumb concerning the temperature of the developer:
    >
    >warmer the water the lesser the time it takes to develop
  47. Problems we can have with the x-ray and how the x-ray is made:
    >
    >
    >
    • >filament lifespan: wears out, fails
    • >bearing damage on rotating anode
    • >damaged glass envelope - fractured
  48. Measures the patient area. Always read bottom of bar in ____.
    • >cailber
    • >centimeters

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