Muscles skeleton and skin

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Marine
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295223
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Muscles skeleton and skin
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2015-02-08 07:02:11
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Muscles skeleton skin
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Muscles skeleton and skin
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  1. Hair arises from which type of tissue?

    ectoderm

    mesoderm

    epidermis

    dermis
    • epidermis
    • ectoderm

    • (hair follicles are hybrid structures but are primarily derived from the epidermis layer of the skin; some contribution from dermis)
    • » hair: epidermal proliferations of epidermis (ectoderm) that penetrate underlying dermis (mesoderm)/ downgrowth of epidermis into underlying dermis

    • - epidermis arises from ectoderm
    • - dermis arises from mesoderm
  2. Epidermis arises from?

    Ectoderm
    Paraxial mesoderm
    Intermediate mesoderm
    Lateral plate mesoderm
    Endoderm
    Mesenchyme
    Neural crest cells
    Ectoderm
  3. Dermis arises from?

    Ectoderm
    Paraxial mesoderm
    Intermediate mesoderm
    Lateral plate mesoderm
    Endoderm
    Neural crest cells
    Mesenchyme
    • Mesenchyme
    • Lateral plate mesoderm (limbs and body wall)
    • Paraxial mesoderm (back)
    • Neural crest cells (face and neck)

    (arises from mesenchyme which has 3 sources: lateral plate mesoderm, paraxial mesoderm, neural crest cells)
  4. When and where does first hair appear?
    • End of 3rd month
    • Eyebrow and upper lip
  5. Vernix caseosa functions
    • Lubrification of skin
    • Protection of skin against macerating action of amniotic fluid
  6. Vernix caseosa is formed by?
    • Secretions from sebaceous glands
    • Degenerated epidermal cells and hairs
  7. Laguno hair function?
    • Covers the fetus (First hair that appears in the fetus)
    • Anchor vernix caseosa to the fetal skin

    (is shed and replaced after birth)
  8. Congenital absence of hair is called:

    Hypertrichosis
    Anonychia
    Athelia or amastia
    Pili torti
    Atrichia or alopecia
    Atrichia or alopecia
  9. Excess of hair is called:

    Hypertrichosis
    Anonychia
    Athelia or amastia
    Pili torti
    Atrichia or alopecia
    Hypertrichiosis
  10. Absence of nipple is called:

    Hypertrichosis
    Anonychia
    Athelia
    Amastia
    Pili torti
    Atrichia or alopecia
    Athelia
  11. Absence of breast is called:

    Hypertrichosis
    Anonychia
    Athelia 
    Amastia
    Pili torti
    Atrichia or alopecia
    Amastia
  12. Bent hair is called:

    Hypertrichosis
    Anonychia
    Athelia or amastia
    Pili torti
    Atrichia or alopecia
    Pili torti
  13. Nail absence is called:

    Hypertrichosis
    Anonychia
    Athelia or amastia
    Pili torti
    Atrichia or alopecia
    Anonychia
  14. The breast develops along the mammary line/ridge, or the milk line. Which of the following is a possible site for acessory nipples or breasts?

    - Cubital fossa or anterior elbow
    - Popliteal fossa or behind the knee
    - Groin
    - Lower lateral neck above clavicle
    - Mid-maxillary line at the 5th intercostal space
    - Axilla or arm pit
    • Groin
    • Axilla or arm pit

    (can appear anywhere along the mammary line- from the axilla or arm pit, through the nipple and into the groin or medial thigh)
  15. Presence of accessory nipples is called:
    Polythelia
  16. Presence of accessory breasts is called:
    Polymastia
  17. Breasts develop from?
    Thickened epidermis of the mammary ridge, as branching ectodermal ingrowths.
  18. Which of the following is not considered a birthmark?

    Angioma
    Hemangioma
    Port wine stain
    Ichthyosis
    Ichthyosis
  19. Which of the following is/are considered birthmark?
    Angioma
    Hemangioma
    Port wine stain
    Ichthyosis
    Aggregations of melanocytes
    • Angioma
    • Hemangioma
    • Port wine stain
    • Aggregations of melanocytes
  20. What is an angioma?
    • Birthmark
    • Vascular malformations beneath the skin
  21. What is a port wine stain?
    Type of angioma called a hemangioma
  22. Which of the following is a skin defect involving excess of keratinization, resulting in scaling?

    Angioma
    Hemangioma
    Port wine stain
    Ichthyosis
    Ichthyosis
  23. Failure of the brain to grow may result in:

    Plagiocephaly
    Craniostenosis
    Acrocephaly
    Scaphocephaly
    Microcephaly
    Microcephaly (if the brain does not grow neither the skull)
  24. Premature closure of cranial sutures is called:

    Plagiocephaly
    Craniostenosis
    Acrocephaly
    Scaphocephaly
    Microcephaly
    Craniostenosis
  25. Early sagittal suture fusion causes:

    Plagiocephaly
    Craniostenosis
    Acrocephaly
    Scaphocephaly
    Microcephaly
    Scaphocephaly or long skull
  26. Early coronal suture fusion causes:

    Plagiocephaly
    Craniostenosis
    Acrocephaly
    Scaphocephaly
    Microcephaly
    Acrocephaly or tower skull
  27. Asymmetric suture fusions (skull) cause:

    Plagiocephaly
    Craniostenosis
    Acrocephaly
    Scaphocephaly
    Microcephaly
    Plagiocephaly
  28. Which of the following is NOT
    TRUE concerning skeletal development?

    -Membranous bones include the clavicle and the bones of the cranial vault and face.

    -During membrane bone formation, no cartilagineous model is formed.

    -Endochondral bone formation involves calcification of cartilage, which is later replaced by true bone.

    -Membranous bones lacks periosteum
    • -> Membranous bones lacks periosteum
    • (bone is a living organ; and all bones possess a periosteal cover)

    • (Periosteum - one of the tissues that enables bones to remodel according the functional stresses.
    • Membrane bone forms within fibrous connective tissue; no cartilaginous anlage or model forms as in endochondral bone formation)
  29. Lobster claw deformity is characterized by:

    Ectrodactyly.

    Brachydactyly.

    Syndactyly.

    Polydactyly.
    • Ectrodactyly
    • Syndactyly

    (Lobster claw deformity involves loss of the middle finger, ectrodactyly (loss of digits), and fusion of the two remaining pairs of digits, syndactyly)
  30. Loss of digits deformity is called:

    Ectrodactyly.
    Brachydactyly.
    Syndactyly.
    Polydactyly.
    Ectrodactyly
  31. Fusion of digits deformity is called:



    Ectrodactyly.
    Brachydactyly.
    Syndactyly.
    Polydactyly.
    Syndactyly
  32. Short digits deformity is called:

    Ectrodactyly.
    Brachydactyly.
    Syndactyly.
    Polydactyly.
    Brachydactyly
  33. Supernumerary digits deformity is called:

    Ectrodactyly.
    Brachydatyly.
    Syndactyly.
    Polydactyly.
    Polydactyly
  34. Klippel-Feil syndrome is characterized by:

    Short neck due to small cervical vertebrae.

    Low hair line

    Tosticollis.

    High forehead.

    Restricted movements of the head.

    Reduction of cervical vertebrae

    Fusions of cervical vertebrae
    • -Restricted movements of the head.
    • -Reduction of cervical vertebrae
    • -Fusions of cervical vertebrae
    • - Low hair line

    (reduction and fusions of cervical vertebrae reduce mobility of the neck)
  35. Somitomeres, paraxial mesoderm cranial to the somites, give rise to much of the skeletal muscle in the head, EXCEPT:

    Extrinsic muscles of the eyes.

    Temporalis.

    Tongue muscles.

    Muscles of facial expression.

    Muscles of the larynx.

    Muscles of mastication.
    • Tongue muscles
    • Muscles of the larynx
  36. Somitomeres, paraxial mesoderm cranial to the somites, provide myotomal tissue for skeletal muscle development to the head. Muscles of somitomere origin include:

    Tongue muscles
    Extrinsic eye muscles
    Muscles of facial expression
    Muscles of the larynx
    Muscles of mastication
    • Extrinsic eye muscles
    • Muscles of facial expression
    • Muscles of mastication (e.g. temporalis)
  37. Muscles of the head originated from somitic myotomes (somite origin):

    Tongue muscles
    Extrinsic eye muscles
    Muscles of facial expression
    Muscles of the larynx
    Muscles of mastication
    • Tonge muscles
    • Muscles of the larynx
  38. The sphenoid bone is derived from which portion of the embryonic skull?

    Cartilagineous neurocranium.

    Membranous neurocranium.

    Cartilagineous viscerocranium.

    Membranous viscerocranium.
    Cartilagineous neurocranium.

    • (in the base of the skull, forms by endochondral ossification)
  39. Parts of the skull?
    • Neurocranium - forms the vault protecting the brain
    • Viscerocranium - forms bones of the face

    • Cartilagenous- endochondral ossification
    • Membranous - intramembranous ossification
  40. Which of the following is NOT TRUE with respect to the development and growth of bones:

    Primary centers of ossification appear before the end of the third month of development.

    Almost all secondary ossification centers appear before birth.

    Longitudinal growth of a long bone occurs in the areas of the epiphyseal plates.

    Membrane bones can be recognized by their typical histological structure.
    Membrane bones can be recognized by their typical histological structure.

    (after development, membrane bone is not distinctive histologically)


  41. Primary ossification centers appear at which week? And where?
    • 12th week
    • Shafts of long bones (diaphysis)
  42. Where do secondary ossification centers appear? When?
    • Epiphysis or ends of long bones
    • Postnatally
  43. Where does occur the growth in length of a long bone?
    Epiphysial cartilage plate separating diaphysis and epiphysis
  44. Achondroplasia is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:

    Inferior sexual development.

    Short limbs.

    Average intelligence.

    Broad, flat face.

    Undershot jaw.
    Inferior sexual development.
  45. Achondroplasia is characterized by:

    Inferior sexual development.

    Short limbs.

    Average intelligence.

    Broad, flat face.

    Undershot jaw.
    • Short limbs.
    • Average intelligence.
    • Broad, flat face.
    • Undershot jaw.

    (Achondroplasia is a disturbance of endochondral ossification during gestation. Therefore, it affects endochondral bones and would not affect intelligence or sexual development)
  46. Digits which are abnormally short are called:

    Syndactyly.

    Polydactyly.

    Brachydactyly.

    Dichuris.

    Amelus.
    Brachydactyly


  47. The nerve supply to a muscle can be used as an indicator of:


    The time of differentiation of a particular muscle.

    The primery germ layer from which a given muscle arise.

    The time of myofibril formation in the muscle.

    The level of origin and path of migration of the muscle.
    The level of origin and path of migration of the muscle.

  48. Origin of muscle:

    Endoderm
    Mesoderm
    Ectoderm
    Mesoderm
  49. The notochord is replaced by the:

    Ependyma.

    Vertebral column.

    Spinal canal.

    Dorsal roots.

    Spinal cord.
    Vertebral column

    (as it is replaced it degenerates; all that remains of the notochord in the adult is the nucleus pulposus in the intervertebral discs, surrounded by the sclerotome derived annulus fibrosus)
  50. Derived from sclerotome:

    Annulus fibrosus
    Nucleus pulposus
    Annulus fibrosus
  51. Derived from notochord:

    Annulus fibrosus
    Nucleus pulposus
    Nucleus pulposus
  52. What is of mesodermal origin in the skin?
    arrector pill muscles
  53. Connective tissue of limbs comes from
    Lateral plate mesoderm

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