Respiratory and digestive system

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Respiratory and digestive system
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Respiratory digestive system
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Respiratory and digestive system
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  1. 1. The stage of lung development, 6 months to after birth, during which the respiratory epithelium becomes squamous and the capillary loops are intimately related to the epithelium is the:

    Glandular period.

    Vascular period.

    Alveolar period.

    Canalicular period.

    Acinar period.
    Alveolar period
  2. 2. In the development of the lung, which of the following is not correct?

    Alveolar collapse in hyaline membrane disease (nowadays known as respiratory distress syndrome) is a result of insufficient surfactant production.

    Alveoli continue to form postnatally.

    Alveoli contain specialized epithelial cells, which produce surfactant.

    Alveolar epithelium is derived from splanchnic mesoderm.
    Alveolar epithelium is derived from splanchnic mesoderm.

    epithelium of lungs- endoderm
  3. 5. The endodermal hepatic diverticulum does NOT give rise to:

    Part of the pancreas.

    Gallbladder.

    Epithelial part of the
    liver.

    Ductus venosus.
    Ductus venosus (mesodermal - blood vessel)
  4. 5. The endodermal hepatic diverticulum gives rise to:

    Part of the pancreas.

    Gallbladder.

    Epithelial part of the
    liver.

    Parenchyma of the liver.

    Ductus venosus.
    • Part of the pancreas. (ventral pancreatic bud)
    • Parenchyma of the liver.
    • Gallbladder.
    • Epithelial part of the liver.
  5. 3. Meckel’s diverticulum
    is an adult remnant of the:

    Urachus.

    Hindgut.

    Pars cystica.

    Vitelline duct.

    Dorsal pancreatic duct.
    Vitelline duct
  6. 4. Endodermal derivatives
    of the gut include:

    Gallbladder muscle.

    Liver hepatocytes.

    Ligament of Treitz.

    Gastric luminal epithelium.
    • Liver hepatocytes.
    • Gastric luminal epithelium.
  7. 6. The following events in the development of the abdominal cavity are greatly affected by the rapid growth of the liver:

    Urorectal septum formation.

    Dorsal mesentery morphogenesis.

    Formation of the inferior recess of the lesser sac.

    Herniation of the midgut loop.

    Development of the ventral mesentery.
    • Herniation of the midgut loop.
    • Development of the ventral mesentery. (promotes the herniation of the midgut by occupying space in the abdominal cavity)
  8. 7. Factors, major events, or structures associated with midgut development include:

    270 rotation.

    Rapid growth of cranial limb.

    Vitelline duct.

    3rd part of duodenum.
    ALL
  9. 8. In its development, the stomach does not:

    Rotate 90 degrees clockwise when viewed from above.

    Descend.

    Exhibit differential growth.

    Cause ventral mesentery development.
    Cause ventral mesentery development. (liver causes)
  10. 9. The embryonic foregut differentiates into all or part of the:

    Liver.

    Ventral pancreas.

    Esophagus.

    Lung.

    Pharynx.

    Respiratory tract.

    Stomach.

    Part of duodenum cranial to the hepatic diverticulum.

    Dorsal pancreas.

    Gallbladder.
    All
  11. 10.The allantois is
    derived from:

    Ectoderm.

    Endoderm.

    Mesoderm.
    Endoderm.
  12. What will the allantois form?
    The urachus and then the median umbilical ligament.
  13. 11.The cloacal membrane is derived from:

    Ectoderm.

    Endoderm.

    Mesoderm.
    • Ectoderm
    • Endoderm
  14. 12. The vermiform appendix arises from: 

    Endoderm.

    Mesoderm.

    Ectoderm.
    • Endoderm
    • Mesoderm
  15. 13. The liver is a derivative of:

    Embryonic foregut.

    Embryonic midgut.
    Embryonic foregut.
  16. 14. The spleen is a derivative of:

    Embryonic foregut.

    Embryonic midgut.

    Mesenchyme.
    Mesenchyme. (primordium appears as a mesodermal proliferation between the 2 leaves of the dorsal mesogastrium)
  17. 15.The vermiform appendix is a derivative of:

    Embryonic foregut.

    Embryonic midgut.

    Embryonic hindgut.
    Embryonic midgut.
  18. 16. Abnormal intestinal rotation during fetal development may produce the following:

    Congenital umbilical hernia.

    Annular pancreas.

    Infarction and gangrene.

    Diaphragmatic hernia.

    Meckel’s diverticulum or diverticulum ilei.
    Infarction and gangrene.
  19. 17.An umbilical fistula is associated with:

    Allantoic duct.

    Vitteline duct.
    • Allantoic duct.
    • Vitteline duct.
  20. 18. The round ligament of the liver, or ligamentum teres hepatis, is associated with:

    Allantoic duct.

    Vitelline duct.

    Umbilical vein.
    Umbilical vein.
  21. Ligamentum teres uteri or round ligament of uterus is remnant of?
    Gubernaculum
  22. 19. Meckel’s diverticulum
    is associated with:

    Allantoic diverticulum.

    Vitelline duct.
    Vitelline duct.
  23. Meckel’s diverticulum is the persistence of the vitelline duct that can be found sometimes, as an outpouching of?
    Ileum
  24. 20. All of us have
    “suffered” which one of the following types of hernia?

    Inguinal.

    Umbilical.

    Lumbar.

    Diaphragmatic.

    Femoral.
    Umbilical
  25. 21. During the development of the gut:

    The pancreas receives part of its blood supply via the celiac trunk.

    The stomach rotates, causing the left vagal trunk to innervate its posterior wall.

    The urorectal fold may fail to divide the cloaca, causing a rectouterine fistula in the female.

    The urorectal fold may fail to divide the cloaca, causing a urorectal fistula.

    The transverse colon becomes retroperitoneal.

    The transverse colon remains intraperitoneal.

    The stomach rotates, causing the right vagal trunk to innervate its posterior wall.
    • The pancreas receives part of its blood supply via the celiac trunk.
    • The transverse colon remains intraperitoneal.
    • The urorectal fold may fail to divide the cloaca, causing a urorectal fistula.
    • The transverse colon remains intraperitoneal.
  26. 22. In the digestive system:

    Endoderm forms the lining of the stomach and lung and the parenchymal cells of the liver.

    Gut rotation and fusion of the mesentery to the dorsal body wall makes the spleen retroperitoneal.

    Spleen remains intraperitoneal.

    The duodenum is supplied by both superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk.

    The duodenum is supplied by both superior and inferior mesenteric artery.

    The inferior mesenteric artery is the axis for counterclockwise rotation of the midgut loop.

    The superior mesenteric artery is the axis for counterclockwise rotation of the midgut loop.
    • Endoderm forms the lining of the stomach and lung and the parenchymal cells of the liver.
    • Spleen remains intraperitoneal.
    • The duodenum is supplied by both superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk.
    • The superior mesenteric artery is the axis for counterclockwise rotation of the midgut loop.
  27. 23. In the digestive system:

    Failure of the intestinal loops to return into the abdominal cavity forms Meckel’s diverticulum.

    An omphalocele would most likely develop around the 10th-12th week of gestation.

    Stenosis of the gut most frequently occurs in the large intestine.

    An annular pancreas is caused by failure in normal migration of the dorsal pancreas.

    An annular pancreas results when the left portion of the ventral pancreas migrates in a direction opposite normal.

    Stenosis of the gut most frequently occurs in the duodenum.
    • An omphalocele would most likely develop around the 10th-12th week of gestation.
    • An annular pancreas results when the left portion of the ventral pancreas migrates in a direction opposite normal.
    • Stenosis of the gut most frequently occurs in the duodenum.
  28. 24. The developing liver does not:

    Contain cells derived from mesoderm.

    Have hemopoietic function in the fetus.

    Have a gallbladder derived from the hepatic diverticulum.

    Have hepatic sinusoids, which receive the majority of their blood from the left umbilcal vein.
    Have hepatic sinusoids, which receive the majority of their blood from the left umbilcal vein. (main blood supply to the sinusoids is the portal vein; blood from the left umbilical vein bypasses the sinusoids via the ductus venosus)
  29. 25. Which of the following conditions would most likely cause vomiting in the newborn?

    Umbilical fistula.

    Duodenal stenosis.

    Renal atresia.

    Stenosis of the transverse colon.

    Esophageal atresia.
    • Duodenal stenosis.
    • Esophageal atresia.
  30. 26. During development of the gut:

    The stomach rotates, so that the greater curvature faces left and inferiorly.

    Retention of the vitelline duct may produce umbilical fistula.

    The urorectal septum may fail to divide the cloaca, causing a rectovaginal fistula in the female.

    The descending colon becomes retroperitoneal.
    ALL
  31. 27. In the development of the gut:

    The celiac trunk represents the blood supply of the midgut.

    The celiac trunk represents the blood supply of the foregut.

    The early embryo mantains a connection between the midgut and the yolk sac via the allantois.

    Muscle, connective tissue and blood vessels in the gut wall are derived from splanchnic mesoderm.

    The primitive gut tube is in open communication with the amniotic cavity.

    Gut communicates with amniotic cavity after 4th week, when the oropharyngeal membrane ruptures.
    • -The celiac trunk represents the blood supply of the foregut.
    • - Muscle, connective tissue and blood vessels in the gut wall are derived from splanchnic mesoderm.
    • - Gut communicates with amniotic cavity after 4th week, when the oropharyngeal membrane ruptures.
  32. 28. Gut rotations and subsequent fusion of
    mesentery to the dorsal body wall causes which of the following to assume a
    retroperitoneal position?

    Gallbladder.

    Pancreas.

    Spleen.

    Duodenum.

    Jejunum.

    Ascending colon.

    Descending colon.
    • Pancreas
    • Duodenum
    • Ascending colon
    • Descending colon
    • (secondary retroperitoneal)
  33. 29. In the formation of the pancreas:

    A dorsal and ventral bud from the endoderm of the duodenum are the first indications of a pancreas.

    The ventral pancreatic bud degenerates.

    An annular pancreas forms if a portion of the dorsal bud rotates abnormally.

    Insulin is not secreted during fetal life.
    A dorsal and ventral bud from the endoderm of the duodenum are the first indications of a pancreas.
  34. 30. The liver:

    Receives blood from the placenta via the umbilical vein which runs in the facilform ligament.

    Forms a diverticulum from the foregut endoderm.

    Contains hemapoietic and connective tissue cells derived from mesoderm of the septum transversum.

    Contains hepatic sinusoids derived from the vitelline veins.
    ALL

    (blood from the placenta reaches the liver via the left umbilical vein but by passes the sinusoids through the ductus venosus)
  35. 31. In the development of
    the midgut:

    The superior mesenteric artery is the axis for clockwise rotation of the midgut.

    The persistence of part of the vitelline duct leads to urachal fistula.

    A vitelline cyst may result from abnormal remodeling of the vitelline veins.

    An omphalocele is not synonymous with congenital umbilical hernia.
    An omphalocele is not synonymous with congenital umbilical hernia.
  36. 32. The yolk sac detaches
    (but not completely) from the gut by the end of the:

    2nd week.

    5th week.

    3rd month.

    4th month.

    5th month.
    • 5th week
    • (remains attached to the gut by vitelline duct, which persists into the third month of develop)
  37. 33. A persistence of the
    vitelline duct may result in :

    Ileal diverticulum.

    Meckel’s diverticulum.

    Vitelline cyst.

    Umbilical or vitelline fistula.
    ALL
  38. 34. During the embryological development, the large intestine is:

    Last to leave the umbilical cord and re-enter the abdominal cavity.

    Always longer than the small intestine.
    Last to leave the umbilical cord and re-enter the abdominal cavity.
  39. 35. Typical bile, secreted by hepatic cells:

    Occurs in fetuses 5 months old.

    Colors the meconium.
    • Occurs in fetuses 5 months old. (bile production begins around the 12th week)
    • Colors the meconium. (bile gives meconium a greenish color; meconium is the fecal material of the fetus)
  40. 36. Accessory pancreases (heterotopic pancreatic tissue):  

    Are extremely rare.

    Fairly common.

    Occur in a Meckel's diverticulum.

    Occur within the wall of the intestine and stomach (mucosa).
    • Fairly common.
    • Occur in a Meckel's diverticulum.
    • Occur within the wall of the intestine and stomach (mucosa).
  41. 37. Factors assisting in
    the rotation of the stomach include:

    Rapid expansion of dorsal mesentery.

    Slow growth of ventral mesentery.
    • Rapid expasion of dorsal mesentery.
    • Slow growth of ventral mesentery.
  42. 38.  The terminal dilated part of the hindgut is called the:

    Cloaca.

    Yolk
    sac.

    Allantois.

    Cecum.

    Coelom.
    Cloaca
  43. Cloaca is divided into? By?
    • Is divided into the primitive urogenital sinus and anorectal canal.
    • By the urorectal septum + torneux folds + rathkes folds
  44. 39. Which of the following arteries supply derivatives of the caudal portion of the foregut?

    Celiac trunk.

    Inferior mesenteric
    artery.

    Pulmonary artery.

    Umbilical artery.

    Common iliac artery.
    Celiac trunk.
  45. 40. Which of the following statements about the developing duodenum is not true?

    It is a derivative of the foregut and midgut.

    The yolk stalk is attached to the apex of the duodenal loop.

    It is supplied by branches of the foregut and midgut arteries.

    It becomes c shaped as it develops and the stomach rotates.

    Its lumen is temporarily obliterated by epithelial cells.
    The yolk stalk is attached to the apex of the duodenal loop.
  46. 41. The following embryonic structures can give origin to cysts, diverticula, or fistulae in the postnatal life EXCEPT:

    Vitelline duct.

    Urachus (allantoic duct)

    Ductus venosus(botalli).

    Neural tube.

    Metanephros.
    Ductus venosus (botalli).
  47. 42. One-eight to one-sixth of the adult number of alveoli are present in the lungs at birth. Their numbers increase after birth at least until ___ years of age

    1.

    2.

    4.

    6.

    8.
    -> 8.

    10 according to the book.
  48. 43. Pulmonary surfactant most likely begins to form in the human fetus at about ____ weeks

    16.

    20.

    26.

    30.

    34.
    -> 26 (during terminal sac period of lung development, which is 25/26 weeks till birth)
  49. 44. As the stomach acquires its adult shape, it rotates around its longitudinal axis. Which of the following events does not result from this rotation?

    The ventral border of the stomach moves to the right.

    The dorsal border moves to the left.

    The dorsal mesogastrium is carried to the left.

    The duodenum rotates to the right.

    The dorsal part of the stomach grows more rapidly.
    The dorsal part of the stomach grows more rapidly. (it's true though, just not related)
  50. 45. The pectinate line of the anus marks the junction of:

    Skin and mucous membrane.

    Splanchnic and somatic mesoderm.

    Ectoderm derivatives and endodermal derivatives.

    Old amniotic cavity and yolk sac.
    ALL
  51. 46. The muscular wall of the esophagus arises from:

    Somatic mesoderm.

    Neural crest.

    Branchial arch VI.

    Lining of the yolk sac.

    Splanchnic mesoderm.
    • Branchial arch VI. (upper portion, skeletal muscle)
    • Splanchnic mesoderm. (lower portion, smooth muscle)
  52. 47. Which of the following is not associated with esophageal atresia:

    Tracheoesophageal fistula.

    Polyhydramnios.

    Deviation of the tracheoesophageal septum.

    Reflux of milk through nose and mouth which appears torward the end of the first week after birth.
    Reflux of milk through nose and mouth which appears torward the end of the first week after birth.
  53. 48.  The terminal sac stage of lung development is characterized by the appearance of:

    Secondary bronchi.

    Tertiary bronchi.

    Respiratory bronchi.

    Surfactant.

    Mature alveoli.
    Surfactant. (plus proliferation of terminal sacs)
  54. 49. The tracheoesophageal septum separates the:

    Laryngotracheal tube and nasophaynx.

    Esophagus and nasopharynx.

    Laryngotracheal tube and esophagus.

    Larygngotracheal tube and oropharynx.

    Esophagus and oropharynx.
    Laryngotracheal tube and esophagus.
  55. 50. The connective tissues
    of the lungs develop from splanchnic mesoderm.

    True.

    False.
    TRUE
  56. 51. The laryngotracheal
    diverticulum develops within the floor of the pharynx between arches:

    I and II.

    II and III.

    III and IV.

    IV and VI.
    IV and VI.
  57. 52. The omental apron of the greater omentum:

    Communicates with the peritoneal cavity via the epiploic foramen of Winslow.

    Becomes retroperitoneal in the adult.

    Has the ascending colon located within its superior boundary.

    Is a quadruple layer of peritoneum.

    Is lost during embryonic development.

    It is a portion of greater omentum, continuous with the gastrocolic ligament, which hangs from the transverse colon.

    Early in development it is an open sac, communicating with the lesser sac or omental bursa. The walls of the sac are two layers of peritoneum, forming a quadruple layer when the bag fuses.
    • -Is a quadruple layer of peritoneum.
    • - It is a portion of greater omentum, continuous with the gastrocolic ligament, which hangs from the transverse colon.
    • - Early in development it is an open sac, communicating with the lesser sac or omental bursa. The walls of the sac are two layers of peritoneum, forming a quadruple layer when the bag fuses.
  58. 53. Which of the following statements concerning the development of the duodenum is FALSE?

    The duodenum rotates to the right side of the embryo during development.

    Most of the duodenum becomes retroperitoneal during development.

    The duodenum develops only from the caudal portion of the foregut.

    There is no lumen within the duodenum at some point in development.
    The duodenum develops only from the caudal portion of the foregut.
  59. 54.  

    Which of the following
    structures is most closely related of the development of the cloaca?

    Liver.

    Stomach.

    Spleen.

    Duodenum.

    Pancreas.

    Gallbladder.

    Jejunum.

    Ileum.

    Cecum.

    Appendix.

    Ascending colon.

    Descending colon.

    Sigmoid colon.

    Rectum.

    Urinary bladder.
    • Cloaca develops into:
    • Rectum
    • Urinary bladder
  60. 55. Which of the following
    structures is secondarily retroperitoneal AND NOT innervated by the vagus nerve:


    Liver.

    Stomach.

    Spleen.

    Duodenum.

    Pancreas.

    Gallbladder.

    Jejunum.

    Ileum.

    Cecum.

    Appendix.

    Ascending colon.

    Descending colon.

    Sigmoid colon.

    Rectum.
    Descending colon (by branches of the splanchnic nerves)
  61. 55. Which of the following
    structures is secondarily retroperitoneal and innervated by the vagus nerve:


    Liver.

    Stomach.

    Spleen.

    Duodenum.

    Pancreas.

    Gallbladder.

    Jejunum.

    Ileum.

    Cecum.

    Appendix.

    Ascending colon.

    Descending colon.

    Sigmoid colon.

    Rectum.
    • Duodenum (most)
    • Pancreas (most)
    • Ascending colon
  62. 56. Normal gut rotation
    brings which structure to lie at McBurney’s point?

    Liver.

    Stomach.

    Spleen.

    Duodenum.

    Pancreas.

    Gallbladder.

    Jejunum.

    Ileum.

    Cecum.

    Appendix.

    Ascending colon.

    Descending colon.

    Sigmoid colon.

    Rectum.
    Appendix
  63. 57. Which of the following structures is most closely related to the development both ventral and dorsal mesentery?

    Liver.

    Stomach.

    Spleen.

    Duodenum.

    Pancreas.

    Gallbladder.

    Jejunum.

    Ileum.

    Cecum.

    Appendix.

    Ascending colon.

    Descending colon.

    Sigmoid colon.

    Rectum.
    Stomach

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