body cavities and membranes

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Marine
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body cavities and membranes
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2015-02-08 06:46:36
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body cavities and membranes
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  1. The intraembryonic coelom located cranial to the oropharyngeal membrane becomes the:

    Oral cavity.

    Cranial foregut.

    Stomodeum.

    Pericardial cavity.

    Nasal cavity.
    pericardial cavity
  2. In the five week embryo, the ventral mesentery of the primitive gut disappears, except where it is attached to the:

    Cranial region of the foregut.

    Embryonic part of the yolk sac.

    Caudal region of the hindgut.

    Caudal region of the foregut.

    Cranial region of the midgut.
    • caudal region of the foregut ( essentially the ventral mesogastrium although it includes an attachement to the 1st part of the duodenum )
    • liver and gallbladder develop in the ventral mesentery.
  3. The intraembryonic coelom first appears during the ______ week.

    Second.

    Third.

    Fourth.

    Fifth.

    Sixth.
    third week
  4. How is the intremebryonic coelom formed?
    During the 3rd week , spaces appear within the embryonic mesoderm laterrally.

    These spaces coalesce to form a horseshoe -shaped cavity known as the intraembryonic coelom.

    This coelom is continuous with the extraembryonic coellon laterally.

    The coelon divides mesoderm into somatic and splanchnic layers.
  5. Most myoblasts or muscle-forming
    cells of the diaphragm arise from mesenchymal cells originating in the:

    Septum transversum.

    Cervical somites.

    Thoracic body wall.

    Splanchnic mesoderm.

    Neural crest.
    • cervical somites
    • phrenic nerves C3-C5 innervate the diaphragm
  6. Which one is NOT true concerning the development of the diaphragm?


    Phrenic nerves pass through pleuroericardial membranes to reach diaphragm.

    Sole motor nerves to the diaphragm arise from spinal cord segments at cervical levels 3,4 and 5.

    Periphery of diaphragm is supplied by sensory branches of intercostal nerves.

    Phrenic nerves form during the 8th week as septum transversum lies as the level of the cervical somites.
    Phrenic nerves form during the 8th week as septum transversum lies as the level of the cervical somites.

    • REASON:
    •  phrenic nerves, from C3-C5, reach the diaphragm slightly later than 4th week , when septum transversum lies at cervical levels.
  7. Which of the following is true concerning congenital diaphragmatic hernia through a
    posterolateral defect?

    It is the most common type of diaphragmatic hernia.

    Stomach, intestines and part of the liver may herniate into the thoracic cavity.

    It occurs more often on the left side.

    The lungs may be compressed and hypoplastic.
    • It is the most common type of diaphragmatic hernia.
    • Stomach, intestines and part of the liver may herniate into the thoracic cavity.
    • It occurs more often on the left side.
    • The lungs may be compressed and hypoplastic.
  8. Posterolateral diaphragmatic hernia is caused by what?
    failure of closure of the pleuroperitoneal canals.
  9. The pleuropericardial membranes give rise to the fibrous pericardium of the adult. In the embryo, this membrane contains:

    Lung buds.

    Cardinal veins.

    Dorsal aortae.

    Phrenic nerves.
    • cardinal veins
    • phrenic nerves

    the lung buds are usually behind or below the pleuropericardial folds/membranes.

    Dorsal aortae is also behind.
  10. Which of the following gives rise to pleura?

    Ectoderm.

    Splanchnic mesoderm.

    Endoderm.

    Somatic mesoderm.
    • splanchnic mesoderm 
    • somatic mesoderm
  11. What divides the mesoderm? and how?
    • coelom
    • into somatic mesoderm and splanchnic mesoderm
  12. the somatic mesoderm becomes what?
    • parietal pleura of lungs
    • peritoneum
    • serous pericardium
  13. the splanchnic mesoderm becomes what?
    visceral serous membranes
  14. which of the following DOES not contibute to the formation of diaphragm?

    body wall musculature

    pleuroperitoneal membranes

    septum transversum

    ventral mesentery

    mesentery of esophagus

    somites C3-C5
    ventral mesentery
  15. which of the following DOES  contibute to the formation of diaphragm?

    body wall musculature

    pleuroperitoneal membranes

    septum transversum

    ventral mesentery

    mesentery of esophagus


    somites C3-C5
    • body wall musculature
    • pleuroperitoneal membranes
    • septum transversum
    • mesentery of esophagus
    • somites C3-C5
  16. the crura of diaphragm comes from what?
    mesentery of esophagus
  17. Somites C3-C5, in the diaphragm development, give rise to what?
    muscular elements
  18. In diaphragm formation, the septum transversum gives rise to what?
    central tendon of diaphragm
  19. The coelom originally located cranial to the prochordal plate becomes the:

    Mouth cavity.

    Stomodeum.

    Pericardial cavity.

    Pharyngeal cavity.

    Pleural cavity.

    Heart
    • pericardial cavity.
    • heart

    the heart begins to develop beneath the intraembryonic coelom cranial to prochordal plate.

    Folding of the embryo brings the heart and the pericardial cavity into the chest.
  20. After folding of the head region, the structure lying just caudal to the pericardial cavity is the:

    Developing heart.

    Connecting stalk.

    Primitive streak.

    Liver.

    Septum transversum.
    septum transversum
  21. what's the diaphragm earliest progenitor?
    septum transversum
  22. Which structure develops, in part, within septum transversum? and the other part develops from what?

    Lungs.

    Small intestine.

    Larynx.

    Esophagus.

    Stomach.

    Parietal pleura.

    Visceral pleura.

    Liver.

    Pancreas.

    Ascending colon.

    Transverse colon.
    liver.

    ventral mesentery
  23. Which structure develops dorsal to the intraembryonic coelom in the region cranial to the prochordal plate/oropharyngeal membrane?

    Lung.

    Small intestine.

    Larynx.

    Esophagus.

    Heart.

    Stomach.

    Parietal pleura.

    Visceral pleura.

    Liver.

    Pancreas.

    Ascending colon.

    Transverse colon.
    heart

    in the cardiogenic region
  24. Which structure develops from the somatic layer of lateral plate mesoderm?

    Lung.

    Small intestine.

    Larynx.

    Esophagus.

    Heart.

    Stomach.

    Parietal pleura.

    Visceral pleura.

    Liver.

    Pancreas.

    Ascending colon.

    Transverse colon.
    Parietal layer
  25. Growth of the pleuropericardial membranes is due to what?

    descendent of the heart

    expansion of pleural cavities

    growth of common cardinal veins ventrocranially

    expansion of the pericardial cavity
    • descent of the heart
    • growth of the common cardinal veins ventrocranially
  26. The intraembryonic coelom:

    Gives rise to the pleural, pericardial and peritoneal cavities.

    Has a communication with the amniotic
    cavity.

    Splits the lateral plate mesoderm.

    Is continuous with the yolk sac.

    Has a comunication with chorionic cavity
    • gives rise to pleural , ericardial and peritoneal cavities
    • splits the lateral plate mesoderm ( into somatic mesoderm - lines the body wall; splanchnic mesoderm - lines the yolk sac)
    • Has a comunication with the chorionic cavity
  27. The embryonic mesogastrium NEVER contains what? and why?

    Dorsal pancreas.

    Spleen.

    Mesenchyme.

    Superior mesenteric artery.
    Superior mesenteric artery.

    the superior mesenteric artery is  the midgut artery and is therefore not in the mesogastrium.
  28. The derivatives of the embryonic ventral mesentery include the following structures EXCEPT:

    Hepatoduodenal ligament.

    Hepatogastric
    ligament.

    Falciform ligament.

    Ligamentum teres hepatis.

    Lesser omentum.
    ligamento teres hepatis
  29. Ligament teres hepatis is a remnant of what?
    fetal umbilical vein
  30. The derivatives of the embryonic ventral mesentery include the following structures:

    Hepatoduodenal ligament.

    Hepatogastric ligament.

    Falciform ligament.

    ligament teres hepatis

    Lesser omentum.
    • hepatoduodenal ligament
    • hepatogastric ligament
    • falciform ligament
    • lesser omentum
  31. Which of the following organs is NOT normally retroperitoneal?

    Suprarenal glands.

    Pancreas.

    Descending colon

    Sigmoid colon.
    sigmoid colon
  32. what are the 4 gut structures that are secondarily retroperitoneal?
    • pancreas
    • duodenum
    • ascending colon
    • descending colon
  33. The following peritoneal ligaments are derived wholly or in part from the embryonic dorsal mesogastrium EXCEPT:

    Hepatogastric ligament.

    Splenorenal or lionorenal ligament.

    Gastrosplenic or gastrolienal ligament.

    Gastrocolic ligament.

    Transverse mesocolon.
    hepatogastric ligament
  34. the hepatogastric ligament is derived from what?
    ventral mesentery

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