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What is the primary function of the present subjunctive I form in German?
indirect discourse in formal, written writing
How is the present subjunctive I formed?
by attaching the subjunctive endings (-e, -est, -e; -en, -et, -en) to the unchanged stem of the infivitive
sein does not add -e (ich sei; er/sie sei)
How is the past subjunctive I formed for all tenses?
with the auxiliary verbs haben or sein in the subjunctive I + the past participle.
How is the future subjunctive I formed?
with the subjunctive I forms of werden + the infinitive
How does the tense of the subjunctive verb of the indirect discourse relate to its corresponding verb tense in the direct discourse?
- 1. Regardless of the verb tense in the opening frame, the verb tenses of the direct and indirect discourses correspond directly.
- 2. direct discourse of any past tense (simple, past or present perfect) becomes past subjunctive
- 3. present direct becomes present subjunctive
- 4. future direct becomes future subjunctive
What are the rules for choosing which subjunctive ( I or II ) to use?
- 1. Use subjunctive I when it differs from the indicative, otherwise use subjunctive II
- 2. the second person singular and plural subjunctive I forms, although often distinct from the indicative, sound stilted and are not used.