CH 13 & 14 SG

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tpvang
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295271
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CH 13 & 14 SG
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2015-02-08 17:24:25
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CH 13 & 14 SG Anatomy and Physiology
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  1. The vessels that carry blood from aterioles to venules are?
    capillaries
  2. The vessels that carry blood from the heart to capillaries are?
    arteries
  3. the vessels that carry blood from capillaries to the heart are?
    Veins
  4. The lining of arteries and veins and is made of simple squamous epithelial tissue?
    Tunica intima
  5. The function of this arterial tissue is to prevent abnormal clotting and is very smooth?
    Tunica intima
  6. the middle layer of arteries and veins and is made of smooth muscle and elastic connective tissue?
    tunica media
  7. The function of this arterial tissue helps maintain diastolic BP?
    tunica media
  8. The outer layer of arteries and veins and is made of fibrous connective tissue?
    tunica externa
  9. The function of this arterial tissue is to prevent ruptures of blood vessels?
    tunica externa
  10. In the veins, the smooth endothelium folded into valves to prevent backflow.
    Inner layer of veins.
  11. veins carry blood from capillaries back to the heart; the smaller veins are called?
    Venules
  12. The outer layer is thin, since BP is low; the lining is folded into valves to prevent backflow of blood; the middle layer is thin, since these vessels are not as important in the maintenance of blood pressure.
    Veins.
  13. Are made of this type of tissue; Simple squamous epithelium?
    Capillaries
  14. A very permeable capillaries are called?
    sinusoids
  15. Protein and blood cells can enter/leave these capillaries, which are found in liver, spleen, and RBM.
    Sinusoids
  16. Direct connections between arteries or between veins are called?
    Anastomoses
  17. provides alternate pathways for blood flow if one vessels gets blocked?
    Anastomoses
  18. This pathways begins at the "right" ventricle, which pumps blood through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. Blood in the pulmonary veins returns to the "left" atrium.

    R Ventricle ⇢ Pulmonary arteries ⇢ pulmonary capillaries ⇢ lungs ⇢ pulmonary veins ⇢ L Atrium.
    Blood flow in Pulmonary circulation
  19. the site of exchage of materials between fetal blood and maternal blood is the ?
    Placenta
  20. Carries blood from the fetus to the placenta?
    Umbilical arteries
  21. the blood carried from the fetus ⇢ placenta are CO2 and waste product, which will be eliminated in the placenta.
    Umbilical arteries.
  22. The blood carries from the placenta ⇢ fetus are O2 and nutrients obtained in the placenta?
    Umbilical vein
  23. In umbilical vein branches, there is 2 branches of vessels.  One branch takes blood to the fetal liver.  The other branch is called _____ , which takes blood to the inferior vena cava which returns blood to the right atrium of the fetal heart.
    Ductus Venosus
  24. within the fetal heart, is an opening in the interatrial septum that permits some blood to flow from the R atrium to the L atrium.
    Foramen ovale.
  25. Permits blood to flow from pulmonary artery to aorta to bypass fetal lungs as well.
    Ductus arteriosus
  26. In BP, pressure occurs during ventricular contraction?
    systolic
  27. In BP, pressure occurs during ventricular relaxation?
    Diastolic
  28. If heart rate and force increases, BP will?
    Increase
  29. The resistance of the blood vessels to the flow of blood.  Normal diastolic BP is maintained by slight constriction of arteries and veins.
    Peripheral resistance
  30. greater vasocontriction will _____ BP.
    increase
  31. Vasodilation will _____ BP.
    Decrease
  32. Stretched during systole and recoil during ventricular diastole. Therefore, normal elasticity decreases systolic BP and increases diastolic BP
    Elasticity of large arteries.
  33. Depended upon the presence of blood cell and albumin.  severe anemia tends to decrease BP.  Deficiency of albumin decreases BP.
    Viscosity of blood
  34. severe hemorrhage, BP will _____.
    decrease
  35. following a small loss of blood, certain compensating mechanisms will prevent a shart decrease in BP.  Name the compensating mechanisms.
    Increase HR & Vasoconstriction.
  36. The hormone that raises BP because it stimulates vasoconstriction?
    norepinephrine
  37. The hormone that raises BP because it stimulates increase HR and force of construction?
    Epinephrine
  38. The hormone raises BP by increasing the reabsorption of water by the kidneys, which increases blood volume.
    ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) - secreted by posterior pituitary gland
  39. The hormone raises BP by increasing the reabsorption of Na+ ions by the kidneys, which is followed by the reabsorption of water to increase blood volume.
    aldosterone
  40. This hormone lowers BP by increasing urinary excretion of sodium ions and water, which decreases blood volume.
    ANP (Atrial natriuretic peptide) - secreted by the atrial of the heart.
  41. the fetal blood vessel that carries blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta is the?
    ductus arteriosus
  42. the fetal blood vessel that carries blood from the placenta to the fetus is the?
    umbilical vein
  43. the layer of the walls of arteries and veins that is smooth to prevent abnormal clotting is the?
    lining, made of simple squamous epithelium
  44. the layer of the walls of arteries that helps maintain diastolic BP is made of?
    smooth muscle and elastic CT
  45. backflow of blood within veins is prevented by?
    valves
  46. a systemic BP reading always consists of two numbers which are called?
    systolic/diastolic
  47. systemic circulation begins at the?
    left ventricle
  48. Venous return in veins that pass through the thoracic cavity is increased by the?
    respiratory pump.
  49. Venous return in the deep veins in the legs is increased by the?
    skeletal muscle pump
  50. following a large loss of blood, as in severe hemorrhage, pressure will?
    decrease
  51. Epinephrine increase BP because it?
    increases HR and Force.
  52. ADH increases BP because it?
    increase water reabsorption by the kidneys
  53. connection between arteries or between veins that provide alternate pathways for blood flow are called?
    Anastomoses
  54. large, very permeable capillaries that permit cells or proteins to enter or leave the blood are called?
    sinusoids
  55. in the fetus, blood flows from the R atrium to the L atrium through the?
    foramen ovale
  56. norepinephrine creases blood pressure because it?
    causes vasoconstriction
  57. when BP decreases, the kidneys secrete?
    renin
  58. angiotensin II  causes?
    • vasoconstriction
    • increased secretion of aldosterone
    • an increase in BP

    **All of These**
  59. Returns tissue fluid to blood to maintain blood volume.  Protects body against pathogens and foreign material.
    Lymph functions
  60. specialized lymph capillaries in the villi of the small intestine; they absorb the fat-soluble end products of digestion, such as fatty acids and vitamins A, D, E, and K.
    Lacteals
  61. The vessel formed by the union of lymph vessels from the lower body.
    cisterna chyli
  62. lymph vessels in the extremities, especially the legs, are compressed by the skeletal muscle that surround them.
    skeletal muscle pump
  63. expands and compresses the lymph vessels in the chest cavity and keeps the lymph moving.
    respiratory pump
  64. located below the epithelium of all mucous membranes; in the pharynx, they are called tonsils
    lymph nodules
  65. destroys pathogens that penetrate mucous membranes; plasma cells produce antibodies that act locally in mucous membranes.
    lymph nodules
  66. Where are the major paired groups of lymph nodes located?
    Cervical, Axillary, Inguinal
  67. This organ is responsible for production of lymphocytes, monocytes; contains fixed plasma cells- produce antibodies; fixed macrophages phagocytize pathogens and old RBCs.
    Spleen
  68. Organ located inferior/below to the thyroid gland
    Thymus
  69. alternate name for lymphocytes that are produced by or that mature in the thymus?
    T Cells
  70. Enables the T cells to participate in the recognition of foreign antigens and to provide immunity for certain diseases
    Thymic Hormones
  71. are chemical markers
    Antigens
  72. and there are 2 general types of antigens.
    Self antigens (body's own cells)  & Foreign antigens (non-self)
  73. Doesn't involve antibodies; does involve the process of inflammation; isn't specific as to antigen; doesn't create memory; involves the lymphocytes called natural killers; response remains the same despite repeated exposures
    innate immunity
  74. innate immunity include the function of stratum corneum of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue below the dermis, and the mucus membranes of the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts.
    Barriers
  75. use to perforins to rupture the membranes of pathogens; a type of luymphocyte found in the blood, blone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes.
    Natural Killers cells
  76. In the embryo, ___ cells are produced in the RBM.
    B Cells
  77. Produced in the Thymus as in the RBM
    T cells
  78. Both T cells and B cells migrate to the _____ and _____ where they function.
    spleen/lymph nodes
  79. initiate a rapid immune response if the antigen enters the body again
    memory T cells
  80. chemically destroy foreign antigens by disrupting their cell membranes.
    Cytotoxic T cells (killer T cells)
  81. initiate rapid antibody production if the antigen enters the body again
    Memory B cells
  82. this term means "to buy food."  as a part of humoral immunity, it is accomplished by antibodies that bonds to specific foreign antigens and label it as "food".  Attracts macrophages that will phagocytize the antigen-antibody complex.
    Opsonization
  83. Doesn't involve antibodies. always lasts a lifetime because it is programmed in DNA.
    Genetic immunity
  84. antibodies from another source;
    natural-placental transmission or breast milk; artificial-injection of immune globulins(i.e. tetanus) immediate, yet temprory antibody protection
    Passive immunity
  85. produces own antibodies;
    natural-diseases
    artificial-vaccine
    Active immunity
  86. Are antibodies proteins shaped somewhat like the letter "Y". doesn't destroy foreign antigens but rather attach to and Label them as destruction.
    Immune globulins (Ig) or gamma globulins
  87. on a second exposure to this virus, the memory cells initiate rapid reproduction of large amounts of antibodies. Disease may be prevented.
    Vaccines- works this way.
  88. "Clumping" and this is what happens when antibodies bind to bacterial cells. bacteria that are clump to bacterial cells are more easily phagocytized by macrophages.
    agglutination.
  89. tissue fluid is called lymph when it enters?
    lymph capillaries
  90. an important function of the lymphatic system is to return tissue fluid to the?
    blood
  91. the masses of lymphatic tissue located below the epithelium of mucous membranes are called?
    lymph nodules
  92. the lymph nodes that remove pathogens in the lymph coming from the legs are called?
    inguinal nodes
  93. lymph nodes and nodules and the spleen are made primarily of WBC called?
    lymphocytes
  94. spleen is located below which organ?
    diaphargm
  95. the funcitioning of the thymus is most important in which age group?
    childhood
  96. in the embryo, both T cells and B cells are produced in the ?
    RBM
  97. Antibodies are _____ molecules that may also be called ______?
    protein/gamma globulins
  98. the two general kinds of antigens, from the perspective of the immune system are?
    self-antigens and foreign antigens.
  99. the return of tissue fluid to the blood is important to maintain normal?
    • blood volume
    • blood pressure
    •  **both of these**
  100. in adaptive immunity, the cells that remember a foreign antigen and initiate its rapid destruction upon a second exposure are?
    memory cells
  101. in adaptive immunity, the cells that participate in the recognition  of foreign antigens are?
    macrophages and helper T cells
  102. recovery from a disease may provide the type of immunity called?
    naturally acquired active immunity
  103. which of these organs does not compensate for any function of the spleen if the spleen must be removed?
    thoracic duct
  104. a baby is born temporarily immune to the disease its mother is immune to; this is example of?
    naturally acquired passive immunity
  105. an antibody can best be described as?
    a label
  106. natural killer cells are believed to eliminate foreign cells by damaging their
    cell membranes
  107. the first antibody response to a foreign antigen is usually?
    slow, with a small amount
  108. in innate immunity, the best anatomic barrier to pathogens is probably?
    stratum corneum
  109. an immune mechanism that does not create memory is?
    innate
  110. the cells involved in innate immunity do all of these except?
    produce antibodies

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