The vessels that carry blood from aterioles to venules are?
The vessels that carry blood from the heart to capillaries are?
the vessels that carry blood from capillaries to the heart are?
The lining of arteries and veins and is made of simple squamous epithelial tissue?
The function of this arterial tissue is to prevent abnormal clotting and is very smooth?
the middle layer of arteries and veins and is made of smooth muscle and elastic connective tissue?
The function of this arterial tissue helps maintain diastolic BP?
The outer layer of arteries and veins and is made of fibrous connective tissue?
The function of this arterial tissue is to prevent ruptures of blood vessels?
In the veins, the smooth endothelium folded into valves to prevent backflow.
Inner layer of veins.
veins carry blood from capillaries back to the heart; the smaller veins are called?
The outer layer is thin, since BP is low; the lining is folded into valves to prevent backflow of blood; the middle layer is thin, since these vessels are not as important in the maintenance of blood pressure.
Are made of this type of tissue; Simple squamous epithelium?
A very permeable capillaries are called?
Protein and blood cells can enter/leave these capillaries, which are found in liver, spleen, and RBM.
Direct connections between arteries or between veins are called?
provides alternate pathways for blood flow if one vessels gets blocked?
This pathways begins at the "right" ventricle, which pumps blood through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. Blood in the pulmonary veins returns to the "left" atrium.
R Ventricle ⇢ Pulmonary arteries ⇢ pulmonary capillaries ⇢ lungs ⇢ pulmonary veins ⇢ L Atrium.
Blood flow in Pulmonary circulation
the site of exchage of materials between fetal blood and maternal blood is the ?
Carries blood from the fetus to the placenta?
the blood carried from the fetus ⇢ placenta are CO2 and waste product, which will be eliminated in the placenta.
The blood carries from the placenta ⇢ fetus are O2 and nutrients obtained in the placenta?
In umbilical vein branches, there is 2 branches of vessels. One branch takes blood to the fetal liver. The other branch is called _____ , which takes blood to the inferior vena cava which returns blood to the right atrium of the fetal heart.
within the fetal heart, is an opening in the interatrial septum that permits some blood to flow from the R atrium to the L atrium.
Permits blood to flow from pulmonary artery to aorta to bypass fetal lungs as well.
In BP, pressure occurs during ventricular contraction?
In BP, pressure occurs during ventricular relaxation?
If heart rate and force increases, BP will?
The resistance of the blood vessels to the flow of blood. Normal diastolic BP is maintained by slight constriction of arteries and veins.
greater vasocontriction will _____ BP.
Vasodilation will _____ BP.
Stretched during systole and recoil during ventricular diastole. Therefore, normal elasticity decreases systolic BP and increases diastolic BP
Elasticity of large arteries.
Depended upon the presence of blood cell and albumin. severe anemia tends to decrease BP. Deficiency of albumin decreases BP.
Viscosity of blood
severe hemorrhage, BP will _____.
following a small loss of blood, certain compensating mechanisms will prevent a shart decrease in BP. Name the compensating mechanisms.
Increase HR & Vasoconstriction.
The hormone that raises BP because it stimulates vasoconstriction?
The hormone that raises BP because it stimulates increase HR and force of construction?
The hormone raises BP by increasing the reabsorption of water by the kidneys, which increases blood volume.
ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) - secreted by posterior pituitary gland
The hormone raises BP by increasing the reabsorption of Na+ ions by the kidneys, which is followed by the reabsorption of water to increase blood volume.
This hormone lowers BP by increasing urinary excretion of sodium ions and water, which decreases blood volume.
ANP (Atrial natriuretic peptide) - secreted by the atrial of the heart.
the fetal blood vessel that carries blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta is the?
the fetal blood vessel that carries blood from the placenta to the fetus is the?
the layer of the walls of arteries and veins that is smooth to prevent abnormal clotting is the?
lining, made of simple squamous epithelium
the layer of the walls of arteries that helps maintain diastolic BP is made of?
smooth muscle and elastic CT
backflow of blood within veins is prevented by?
a systemic BP reading always consists of two numbers which are called?
systemic circulation begins at the?
Venous return in veins that pass through the thoracic cavity is increased by the?
Venous return in the deep veins in the legs is increased by the?
skeletal muscle pump
following a large loss of blood, as in severe hemorrhage, pressure will?
Epinephrine increase BP because it?
increases HR and Force.
ADH increases BP because it?
increase water reabsorption by the kidneys
connection between arteries or between veins that provide alternate pathways for blood flow are called?
large, very permeable capillaries that permit cells or proteins to enter or leave the blood are called?
in the fetus, blood flows from the R atrium to the L atrium through the?
norepinephrine creases blood pressure because it?
when BP decreases, the kidneys secrete?
angiotensin II causes?
increased secretion of aldosterone
an increase in BP
**All of These**
Returns tissue fluid to blood to maintain blood volume. Protects body against pathogens and foreign material.
specialized lymph capillaries in the villi of the small intestine; they absorb the fat-soluble end products of digestion, such as fatty acids and vitamins A, D, E, and K.
The vessel formed by the union of lymph vessels from the lower body.
lymph vessels in the extremities, especially the legs, are compressed by the skeletal muscle that surround them.
skeletal muscle pump
expands and compresses the lymph vessels in the chest cavity and keeps the lymph moving.
located below the epithelium of all mucous membranes; in the pharynx, they are called tonsils
destroys pathogens that penetrate mucous membranes; plasma cells produce antibodies that act locally in mucous membranes.
Where are the major paired groups of lymph nodes located?
Cervical, Axillary, Inguinal
This organ is responsible for production of lymphocytes, monocytes; contains fixed plasma cells- produce antibodies; fixed macrophages phagocytize pathogens and old RBCs.
Organ located inferior/below to the thyroid gland
alternate name for lymphocytes that are produced by or that mature in the thymus?
Enables the T cells to participate in the recognition of foreign antigens and to provide immunity for certain diseases
are chemical markers
and there are 2 general types of antigens.
Self antigens (body's own cells) & Foreign antigens (non-self)
Doesn't involve antibodies; does involve the process of inflammation; isn't specific as to antigen; doesn't create memory; involves the lymphocytes called natural killers; response remains the same despite repeated exposures
innate immunity include the function of stratum corneum of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue below the dermis, and the mucus membranes of the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts.
use to perforins to rupture the membranes of pathogens; a type of luymphocyte found in the blood, blone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes.
Natural Killers cells
In the embryo, ___ cells are produced in the RBM.
Produced in the Thymus as in the RBM
Both T cells and B cells migrate to the _____ and _____ where they function.
initiate a rapid immune response if the antigen enters the body again
memory T cells
chemically destroy foreign antigens by disrupting their cell membranes.
Cytotoxic T cells (killer T cells)
initiate rapid antibody production if the antigen enters the body again
Memory B cells
this term means "to buy food." as a part of humoral immunity, it is accomplished by antibodies that bonds to specific foreign antigens and label it as "food". Attracts macrophages that will phagocytize the antigen-antibody complex.
Doesn't involve antibodies. always lasts a lifetime because it is programmed in DNA.
antibodies from another source; natural-placental transmission or breast milk; artificial-injection of immune globulins(i.e. tetanus) immediate, yet temprory antibody protection
produces own antibodies; natural-diseases artificial-vaccine
Are antibodies proteins shaped somewhat like the letter "Y". doesn't destroy foreign antigens but rather attach to and Label them as destruction.
Immune globulins (Ig) or gamma globulins
on a second exposure to this virus, the memory cells initiate rapid reproduction of large amounts of antibodies. Disease may be prevented.
Vaccines- works this way.
"Clumping" and this is what happens when antibodies bind to bacterial cells. bacteria that are clump to bacterial cells are more easily phagocytized by macrophages.
tissue fluid is called lymph when it enters?
an important function of the lymphatic system is to return tissue fluid to the?
the masses of lymphatic tissue located below the epithelium of mucous membranes are called?
the lymph nodes that remove pathogens in the lymph coming from the legs are called?
lymph nodes and nodules and the spleen are made primarily of WBC called?
spleen is located below which organ?
the funcitioning of the thymus is most important in which age group?
in the embryo, both T cells and B cells are produced in the ?
Antibodies are _____ molecules that may also be called ______?
the two general kinds of antigens, from the perspective of the immune system are?
self-antigens and foreign antigens.
the return of tissue fluid to the blood is important to maintain normal?
**both of these**
in adaptive immunity, the cells that remember a foreign antigen and initiate its rapid destruction upon a second exposure are?
in adaptive immunity, the cells that participate in the recognition of foreign antigens are?
macrophages and helper T cells
recovery from a disease may provide the type of immunity called?
naturally acquired active immunity
which of these organs does not compensate for any function of the spleen if the spleen must be removed?
a baby is born temporarily immune to the disease its mother is immune to; this is example of?
naturally acquired passive immunity
an antibody can best be described as?
natural killer cells are believed to eliminate foreign cells by damaging their
the first antibody response to a foreign antigen is usually?
slow, with a small amount
in innate immunity, the best anatomic barrier to pathogens is probably?
an immune mechanism that does not create memory is?
the cells involved in innate immunity do all of these except?