1.5.1 Lipids

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1.5.1 Lipids
2015-02-08 15:25:50

Lipids day 1
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  1. Know what structural considerations make a saturated fatty acid saturated )
    • Saturated F.A is a fatty acid that does not have a double bond on their tails. Since there is no double bonds bw carbons then the chain is fully hydrogenated
    • *they are easier to stack on top of one another making them a solid in room temp
  2. Know the difference between a CIS-trans fatty acid ) CIS (2)
    -creates a healthier fat

    -this form results in folding back & kinking of the molecule into a u-like orientation
  3. Know the difference between a CIS-trans fatty acid ) Trans (2)
    -creates a less healthier trans fat

    -have the effect of extending the molecule into a linear shape similar to saturated F.A
  4. Omega away 20:5 ω 3, what does the 20 stand for?
    Chain size, how many carbons are there
  5. Omega away 20:5 ω 3, what does the 5 stand for?
    # of double bonds
  6. Omega away 20:5 ω 3, what does the 3 stand for?
    • Position of first double bond
    • *double bonds always separated by 3 so for this one it would be 3,6,9,12,15
  7. What makes F.A essential?
    • We do not have the capacity to synthesize it endogenously, omega 3 or omega 6 positions
    • *that's why we need to get it through our diet
  8. Omega 3 (3)

    -cholesterol reducing effects

    • -precursors to modulators of inflammation
    • *eicosanoids
  9. Omega 3 sources
    -fish/shellfish and some vegetable oils
  10. Omega 6 FA (2)
    -role in proinflammatory response

  11. Omega 6 soruces
    -vegetable oils, wheat, poultry
  12. Know the general role of cholesterol as a precursor to hormones ) Act as a precursor to other necessary steroids...(4)
    -bile acids

    -sex hormones

    -adrenocortical hormones

    -vitamin D
  13. Lingual lipase, Location of action
    Begins in the mouth
  14. Lingual lipase, role
    Stereospecific cleaving the 3rd carbon on the triacylglycerol
  15. Gastric Lipase, location of action
  16. Gastric Lipase, roles
    Same as lingual lipase so cleaves to only 3rd carbon on the triacylglycerol because it is stereospecific
  17. Pancreatic lipase, location of action
    • Small intestines
    • *created by pancreas
  18. Pancreatic lipase, roles
    Cleaves 1st and 3rd F.A leaving only monoacylglycerol and free F.A
  19. Bile, roles
    Bile salts are amphipathic molecules so they arrange themselves around fat molecules which makes the fat bead up in small droplets. This leads to an increase of S.A for the pancreatic enzymes to attack the Micelles
  20. Bile, location of action
    Small intestine
  21. Be able to discuss the issues surrounding hydrophilic enzymes to be able to interact with hydrophobic fat. How do we get around this problem?
    We get around this problem by using bile. Bile has amphipathic nature that allows it to surround itself to fat molecules which will lead to the fat beading up into Michelle. Once the fat is turned into Micelles, pancreatic lipase is able to attack the Micelles due to the increased surface area exposed