A & P Final

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A & P Final
2010-08-10 11:28:43

A & P Final
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    Male and female reproductive systems are connected by a series of organs and glands that produce & nurture sex cells & transport them to sites of fertilization
  2. Sex Cells
    • Male = sperm
    • Female = eggs or oocytes
    • Sex cells are produced by a special type of division called meiosis
    • Meiosis includes two successive divisions , called the first (meiosis I) and second (meiosis II) meiotic divisions
  3. First Meiotic Division
    • Meiosis I separates homologous (the same, gene for gene) pairs
    • May not be identical because a gene may have variants
  4. Four phases in this division
    Prophase I

    Metaphase I

    Anaphase I

    Telophase I
  5. Second Meiotic Division
    • Meiosis II begins after telophase I
    • Similar to mitosis
    • This division completes with each sex cell having one set of genetic instructions, or 23 chromosomes (compared to two sets (46 chromosomes) in other cells)
  6. Four phases in this division:
    • Prophase II
    • Metaphase II
    • Anaphase II
    • Telophase II
  7. Male Internal Accessory Organs
    • Epididymides
    • Ductus deferentia
    • Seminal vesicles
    • Prostate gland
    • Bulbourethral glands
  8. Epididymides
    • Tightly coiled tubes
    • Connected to ducts within the testis
    • Promote maturation of sperm cells
  9. Ductus Deferentia
    • Are muscular tubes
    • About 45 centimeters each
    • Extends from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
  10. Seminal Vesicles
    • Attached to the vas deferens near base of the urinary
    • bladder
    • Secrete alkaline fluid
    • Secrete fructose and prostaglandins
    • Contents empty into the ejaculatory duct
  11. Prostate Gland
    • Surrounds the proximal portion of the urethra
    • The ducts of the gland open into the urethra
    • Secretes a thin, milky, alkaline fluid
    • Secretion enhances fluid mobility
    • Composed of tubular glands in connective tissue
    • Also contains smooth muscle
  12. Bulbourethral Glands
    • Inferior to the prostate gland
    • Secrete mucus-like fluid
    • Fluid released in response to sexual stimulation
  13. Semen
    • The fluid the urethra conveys to the outside during ejaculation is called semen
    • Semen consists of:
    • Sperm cells
    • Secretions of the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, & bulbourethral glands
    • Is slightly alkaline
    • Contains prostaglandins
    • Contains nutrients
    • Volume is 2-5 milliliters of semen per ejaculation
    • Average 120 million sperm cells per milliliter of semen
  14. Male External Reproductive Organs
    • Includes the:
    • Scrotum (and two testes)
    • Penis
  15. Scrotum
    • Pouch of skin and subcutaneous tissue
    • Dartos muscle – smooth muscle in subcutaneous tissue; contracts to cause wrinkling of the scrotum
    • Medial septum divides the scrotum into two chambers
    • Each chamber is lined with a serous membrane
    • Each chamber houses a testis and epididymis
  16. Penis
    • Conveys urine and semen
    • Specialized to become erect for insertion into the vagina
  17. Erection, Orgasm, and Ejaculation
    • The erection:
    • Parasympathetic nerve impulses
    • Blood accumulates in the erectile tissues
    • The orgasm:
    • Culmination of sexual stimulation
    • Accompanied by emission and ejaculation
    • The ejaculation:
    • Emission is the movement of semen into the urethra
    • Ejaculation is the movement of semen out of the urethra
    • This is largely dependent on sympathetic nerve
    • impulses
  18. Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive Functions
    • Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary gland, & the testes control male rep. functions
    • Hormones initiate and maintain sperm cell production & oversee the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics
  19. Hypothalamic & Pituitary Hormones
    • The hypothalamus controls maturation of sperm cells & development of male secondary sex characteristics
    • Negative feedback among the hypothalamus, the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and the testes controls the concentration of testosterone
  20. Male Sex Hormones
    • The male sex hormones are called androgens
    • Interstitial cells in the testes produce most of them, but small amounts are made in the adrenal cortex
    • Testosterone is the most important
  21. Actions of Testosterone
    • Increased growth of body hair
    • Sometimes decreased growth of scalp hair
    • Enlargement of the larynx and thickening of the vocal cords
    • Thickening of the skin
    • Increased muscular growth
    • Thickening and strengthening of the skeletal bones
  22. Ovary Attachments
    • Several ligaments hold each ovary in position
    • The largest is called the broad ligament and is attached to the uterine tubes and uterus
    • The suspensory ligament holds the ovary at the upper end
    • The ovarian ligament is a rounded, cord-like thickening of the broad ligament
  23. Ovary Descent
    • Like the testes in the male fetus, the ovaries develop from masses of tissue posterior to the parietal peritoneum, near the developing kidney
    • They descend to locations just inferior to the pelvic brim where they remain attached to the lateral pelvic wall
  24. Ovary Structure
    • The tissues of an ovary can be divided into an inner medulla and an outer cortex
    • The ovarian medulla is mostly composed of loose connective tissue and contains many blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers
    • The ovarian cortex consists of more compact tissue & has a granular appearance due to tiny masses of cells called ovarian follicles
  25. Primordial Follicles
    • During prenatal development of a female, oogonia divide by mitosis to produce more oogonia
    • The oogonia develop into primary oocytes
    • Each primary oocyte is closely surrounded by a layer of flattened epithelial cells called follicular cells, forming a primordial follicle
  26. Follicle Maturation
    • At puberty, the anterior pituitary gland secretes increased amounts of FSH, and the ovaries enlarge in response
    • With each reproductive cycle, some of the primordial follicles mature
  27. Follicle Maturation
    • As many as twenty primary follicles may begin maturing at any one time
    • One dominant follicle usually out-grows the others
    • Typically only the dominant follicle fully develops & the others degenerate
  28. Ovulation
    • As a follicle matures, its primary oocyte undergoes meiosis I, giving rise to a secondary oocyte
    • & a first polar body
    • The process of ovulation releases these cells from the follicle
  29. Female Internal Accessory Organs
    • The female internal accessory organs include:
    • Uterine tubes
    • Uterus
    • Vagina
  30. Vagina
    A fibromuscular tube that conveys uterine secretions, receives the penis during intercourse, and provides an open channel for offspring
  31. Female External Reproductive Organs
    • The female external reproductive organs surround the openings of the urethra and vagina and is known as the vulva, and include:
    • Labia majora
    • Labia minora
    • Clitoris
    • Vestibular glands
  32. Labia Majora
    • Rounded folds of adipose tissue and skin
    • Enclose and protect the other external reproductive parts
    • Ends form a rounded elevation over the symphysis pubis
  33. Labia Minora
    • Flattened, longitudinal folds between the labia majora
    • Well supplied with blood vessels
  34. Clitoris
    • Small projection at the anterior end of the vulva
    • Analogous to the male penis
    • Composed of two columns of erectile tissue
    • Root is attached to the sides of the pubic arch
  35. Vestibule
    • Space between the labia minora that encloses the vaginal and the urethral openings
    • The vestibular glands secrete mucus into the vestibule during sexual stimulation
  36. Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Functions
    • Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary gland, and the ovaries control development
    • & maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics, maturation of female sex cells, & changes during the monthly reproductive cycle
  37. Menopause
    • Usually occurs in the late 40s or the early 50s
    • The reproductive cycles stop
    • The ovaries no longer produce as much estrogens & progesterone as previously
    • Some female secondary sex characteristics may disappear
    • It may produce hot flashes and fatigue
    • Migraine headaches, backaches and fatigue is possible
    • Hormone therapy may prevent effects on bone tissue
  38. Mammary Glands
    The mammary glands are accessory organs of the female reproductive system specialized to secrete milk following pregnancy
  39. Location of the Glands
    • Located in the subcutaneous tissue of the anterior thorax within the breasts
    • Composed of lobes
    • Estrogens stimulate breast development in females
  40. Structure of the Glands
    • A mammary gland is composed of fifteen to twenty irregularly shaped lobes
    • Each lobe contains glands (alveolar glands), drained by alveolar ducts, which drain into a lactiferous duct that leads to the nipple and opens to the outside
    • Dense strands of connective tissue form suspensory ligaments that support the breast
  41. Development of the Breasts
    • The mammary glands of males and females are similar
    • As puberty is reached, ovarian hormones stimulate development of the glands in females
  42. Birth Control
    • Birth control is the voluntary regulation of the number of offspring produced and the time they are conceived
    • This control requires a method of contraception
  43. Coitus Interruptus
    The practice of withdrawing the penis from the vagina before ejaculation, preventing entry of sperm cells into the female reproductive tract
  44. Rhythm Method
    Requires abstinence from sexual intercourse two days before and one day after ovulation
  45. Mechanical Barriers
    • Condom
    • Diaphragm
    • Cervical cap
    • Spermicidal foams or jellies
  46. Chemical Barriers
  47. Combined Hormone Contraceptives
    • These deliver estrogen and progesterone to prevent pregnancy
    • Various methods are used to deliver hormones including:
    • Flexible chemical ring (Nuvaring)
    • Plastic patch (Ortho Evra)
    • The pill orally
    • (Similar to these combined hormones is the “minipill” which contains only progestin)
  48. Injectable Contraception
    An intramuscular injection of Depo-Provera protects against pregnancy for three months by preventing maturation and release of a secondary oocyte
  49. Intrauterine Devices
    • An intrauterine device, or IUD, is a small, solid object that a physician places in the uterine cavity
    • An IUD interferes with implantation of a blastocyst
  50. Sexually Transmitted Diseases
    • These are silent infections
    • Most are bacterial and can be cured
    • Herpes, warts, and AIDS are viral and cannot be cured
    • Many cause infertility
    • AIDS causes death
  51. Symptoms of STDs include:
    • Burning sensation during urination
    • Pain in the lower abdomen
    • Fever or swollen glands
    • Discharge from the vagina or the penis
    • Pain, itch, or inflammation in the genital or the anal area
    • Sores, blisters, bumps or rashes
    • Itchy, runny eyes
  52. Pregnancy, Growth, and Development
    • A sperm and a secondary oocyte unite, forming a zygote, and the journey of prenatal development begins
    • After 38 weeks of cell division, growth and specialization into distinctive tissues and organs, a new human being enters the world
    • Humans grow, develop and age
    • Growth is an increase in size
    • Development, which includes growth, is the continuous process by which an individual changes from one life phase to another
    • – Prenatal period is from fertilization to birth
    • – Postnatal period is from birth to death
  53. Pregnancy
    • Pregnancy is the presence of a developing offspring in the uterus
    • It consists of three periods, or trimesters, each three months long
  54. Transport of Sex Cells
    • Before fertilization can occur, a secondary oocyte must be ovulated and enter a uterine tube
    • Only 200 of between 200 to 600 million sperm reach a secondary oocyte
  55. Fertilization
    Fertilization is the union of an egg cell (secondary oocyte) & a sperm cell