is a system of values and norms that are shared among a group of people
values and norms
-abstract ideas about what a group believes to be good, right, and desirable ( shared assumptions about the way thing are suppose to be)
-the social rule and guidelines that prescribe appropriate behavior in practical situations
folkways and mores
- are the routine conventions of everyday life (ex dress code in situations, good social manner, eating with correct utensils)
-are norms that are seen as central to the functioning of a society and to its social life. (the have much greater significance the folkways)
individualism advantages and disadvantages in the US
individualism- is the "I" mentality
advantages- entrepreneurial individualism have created many new products and new ways of business
disadvantages- lack of loyalty and commitment to an individual company
caste system vs class system
- is a closed system of stratification in which social positio is determined by the family into which a person is born , and change in that position is usually impossible in ones life time
-is less rigid form of social stratifcation in which social mobility is possible. a person can change position by there achievements or luck.
you don't care about other peoples culture and you think that your culture is the best
Islam : Economic implications of Islam
they use the Koran as a guide book for there economy, Islam view the world, humans are part of a collection in which the wealthy and successful are obligated to help those in need
mostly in Indian, it does not have a sacred book like the bible or Koran. Hindus believe that a moral force in society requires the acceptance of certain responsibilities, called dharma. Hindus believe in reincarnation. they believe in karma the spirtual progression of each persons soul. Karma is affected by the way a person lives.
Economic Implications of Confucianism
- Loyalty to ones superior is regarded as sacred duty
- the superiors are obligated to reward the loyalty of there subordinates by bestowing blessings on them. if the blessings are not forthcoming neither will be the loyalty.
- the third concept is the importance of honesty. when companies can trust each other to not break contractual agreements the cost of doing business is much lower
(108) languages does far more then to enable people to communicate. the nature of language also structure the way we perceive the world. the language of a society can direct the attention of its members to certain features of the world rather then others. language can define a culture countries that speak more then one language normally have more then one culture.
Hofstedes 4 dimensions (110)
Power distance- dimension focused on how a society deals with the fact that people are unequal in physical and intellectual capabilities
individualism vs collectivism- dimesnsion focused on individual relationships between the individual and his or her fellows.
Uncertainty avoidance- dimesnsion measured the extent to which different cultures socialized their members into accepting ambiguous situations and tolerating uncertainty
masculinity vs femininity- dimension looked at the relationship between genders and work roles
culture change (112)
culture is not constant, it evolves over time. changes in value systems can be slow and painful for society. EX US towards roles of women, love, sex, and marriage
aesthetics in culture
the arts, music, dance, drama , symbols in a culture