Psych Chapter 1

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Psych Chapter 1
2015-02-15 09:32:49
Chapters 1, 2, 4, and 5
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  1. What is psychology?
    the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

    --> thoughts and behaviors
  2. What are the four goals of psychology
    Description: name the topic

    Explanation: detailed description 

    Prediction: hypothesize; educated guess

    Change: Change your focus or what research already says; or change your future plans
  3. Nature vs nurture controversy
    • biological standpoints are nature
    • how you're raised is nurture

    --> ongoing dispute over the relative contributions of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment)
  4. What is a way to settle the nature vs nurture controversy?
    Interactionist approach: people who believe both play a role
  5. biopsychology
    neuropsychology and physiological psych

    --> brain; chemicals; nervous system; hormones; neurotransmitters
  6. Cognitive psychology
    thoughts; memory; dreams; problem solving; decision-making
  7. Developmental psych:
    look at everything across the entire lifespan
  8. Educational Psychology
    how environment affects learning (learning environment)
  9. school psychology
    students-> learning disabilities--> plan
  10. forensic psychology
    work with crimes and criminal justice professionals; analyze crimes
  11. Social Psychology
    influence; how do groups and persons influence others; peer pressure; love, racism, attraction, etc
  12. Wilhelm Wundt 
    - first what? 
    - trained what? 
    - Wrote what? 
    - Studied what
    - came up with what word?
    • first psychological lab in Leipzig, Germany in 1879 and trained the first generation
    • "Principles of Physiological Psychology"
    • Conscious experiences

  13. What is introspection?
    looking inward and tapping into all of the senses
  14. What is the psychoanalytic/ psychodynamic approach?
    focuses on unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts

    developed by Freud
  15. Sigmund Freud
    believed that peoples motives were caused by sexual/ aggressive drives

    unconscious--> outside awareness/ early childhood experiences

    Pyschotherapy called psychanalysis
  16. Humanism has three assumptions.
    • all people are born good
    • all people have a unique perception of the world
    • all people strive to reach their fullest potential
  17. What is the hierarchy of needs?
    from bottom to top:

    • physiological
    • safety
    • love 
    • esteem
    • self-actualization
  18. What is the breakdown of psychology?
    conscious: Wundt- introspection/ Titchener: structuralism/ James- functionalism 

    Unconscious: Freud and behaviorists-> Watson, Pavlov, BF Skinner
  19. What are additional perspectives of the origins of psychology
    Cognitive: thought, perception, info processing

    Physiological: genetics and other biological processes in the brain/ nervous system

    Evolutionary: natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes

    Socio-cultural perspective: social interaction and cultural determinants
  20. What is the modern perspective of psychology?
    biopsychosocial model: unifying themes of modern psychology that considers biological, psychological, and social processes
  21. Scientific method
    Step 1: identify questions of interest and review lit to ensure nobody has done it yet

    Step 2: Hypothesize

    Step 3: Select a research method and collect the data

    Step 4: Analyze Data and Accept/ Reject hypothesis

    Step 5: Publish, replicate, adn seek scientific review

    Step 6: Build a theory--and then the cycle continues
  22. operational definitions
    a precise description of how the variables in a study will be observed and measured; specifically define

    ex: I'm studying the impact of watching violent TV on aggressive behavior in children. I need to define what is considered violent TV and what is considered aggressive behavior
  23. Ethical Guidelines: What is expected of psychologists
    • informed consent
    • voluntary participation
    • restricted use of deception (they can lie to you to an extent)
    • debriefing (let them know what the deception was)
    • confidentiality
    • alternative activities in regards to college requirements
  24. When is the only time you can break confidentiality?
    • 1) harm to self
    • 2) harm to others
    • 3) abuse
    • 4) to protect client in court
    • 5) if you're being sued
  25. What is an experiment?
    a carefully controlled scientific procedure that involves manipulation of variables to determine cause and effect

    Key Features: independent variable, dependent variable, control group, experimental group
  26. Dependent variable vs. Independent variable
    measured vs. manipulated
  27. Control vs. Experimenta
    does not receive independent variable vs. receives the independent variable
  28. Placebo effect? 

    Double Blind Study
    fake pill/ sugar pill

    participants and experimenter have no idea which group they're in`
  29. Advantages and disadvantages of experiment?
    Adv: only method that allows one to say cause and effect

    Dis: experimental bias/ confirmation bias; sample bias; participant bias
  30. Naturalistic observation

    - info
    - adv
    - dis
    info: watching people/ animals in their natural environment

    adv: you're seeing the real deal; no lab needed

    dis: can't control certain variables; people act differently when being watched; you must stay hidden
  31. Case Study
    info: in-depth study of a single research participant (or a group); topic usually biological in nature

    adv: gives it precedent; gives an opportunity to develop precedence over a particular issue

    dis: rare/ potential bias
  32. Survey/ Questionnaire



    info: polls/ questions a large sample of people of assess their behaviors and attitudes

    adv: cost effective; tons of info; short amount of time

    dis: framing effect: questions worded weirdly or in the word order; not truthful (at times); need the right population
  33. Correlation



    • info: positive correlation: move in same direction
    • negative correlation: mvoe in different direction
    • strength: relationship between two variables

    dis: you cannot say cause and effect
  34. correlational coefficient: __
    a number indicates the degree and direction of the relationship between two variables (r value)
  35. Positive correlation: 

    Negative correlation:
    both move in the same direction

    move in opposite directions
  36. Explain r.
    if r=0, there is no relationship; not linked

    If r= 1, there is a perfect relationship; will never be seen

    • There is a range:
    • r=0.7-0.9 (strong relationship)
    • r= 0.4-0.6 (moderate relationship)
    • r= 0.1-0.3 (weak relationship)
  37. What is a solution to resolving experimental bias?
    • double blind study
    • placebo effect
  38. What is a solution to solving ethnocentrism?
    cross-cultural sampling
  39. What is a solution for sample bias when dealing with participants?
    • random sample
    • representative sampling
    • random assignment
  40. What is a solution for participant bias?
    anonymity/ privacy

  41. Descriptive research
    research methods that observe and record behavior without producing causal explanations; there is no manipulation of variables

    Types: naturalistic observations, surveys, case studies