Psych Chapter 1
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What is psychology?
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
--> thoughts and behaviors
What are the four goals of psychology
Description: name the topic
Explanation: detailed description
Prediction: hypothesize; educated guess
Change: Change your focus or what research already says; or change your future plans
Nature vs nurture controversy
- biological standpoints are nature
- how you're raised is nurture
--> ongoing dispute over the relative contributions of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment)
What is a way to settle the nature vs nurture controversy?
Interactionist approach: people who believe both play a role
neuropsychology and physiological psych
--> brain; chemicals; nervous system; hormones; neurotransmitters
thoughts; memory; dreams; problem solving; decision-making
look at everything across the entire lifespan
how environment affects learning (learning environment)
students-> learning disabilities--> plan
work with crimes and criminal justice professionals; analyze crimes
influence; how do groups and persons influence others; peer pressure; love, racism, attraction, etc
- first what?
- trained what?
- Wrote what?
- Studied what
- came up with what word?
- first psychological lab in Leipzig, Germany in 1879 and trained the first generation
- "Principles of Physiological Psychology"
- Conscious experiences
What is introspection?
looking inward and tapping into all of the senses
What is the psychoanalytic/ psychodynamic approach?
focuses on unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts
developed by Freud
believed that peoples motives were caused by sexual/ aggressive drives
unconscious--> outside awareness/ early childhood experiences
Pyschotherapy called psychanalysis
Humanism has three assumptions.
- all people are born good
- all people have a unique perception of the world
- all people strive to reach their fullest potential
What is the hierarchy of needs?
from bottom to top:
What is the breakdown of psychology?
conscious: Wundt- introspection/ Titchener: structuralism/ James- functionalism
Unconscious: Freud and behaviorists-> Watson, Pavlov, BF Skinner
What are additional perspectives of the origins of psychology
Cognitive: thought, perception, info processing
Physiological: genetics and other biological processes in the brain/ nervous system
Evolutionary: natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes
Socio-cultural perspective: social interaction and cultural determinants
What is the modern perspective of psychology?
biopsychosocial model: unifying themes of modern psychology that considers biological, psychological, and social processes
Step 1: identify questions of interest and review lit to ensure nobody has done it yet
Step 2: Hypothesize
Step 3: Select a research method and collect the data
Step 4: Analyze Data and Accept/ Reject hypothesis
Step 5: Publish, replicate, adn seek scientific review
Step 6: Build a theory--and then the cycle continues
a precise description of how the variables in a study will be observed and measured; specifically define
ex: I'm studying the impact of watching violent TV on aggressive behavior in children. I need to define what is considered violent TV and what is considered aggressive behavior
Ethical Guidelines: What is expected of psychologists
- informed consent
- voluntary participation
- restricted use of deception (they can lie to you to an extent)
- debriefing (let them know what the deception was)
- alternative activities in regards to college requirements
When is the only time you can break confidentiality?
- 1) harm to self
- 2) harm to others
- 3) abuse
- 4) to protect client in court
- 5) if you're being sued
What is an experiment?
a carefully controlled scientific procedure that involves manipulation of variables to determine cause and effect
Key Features: independent variable, dependent variable, control group, experimental group
Dependent variable vs. Independent variable
measured vs. manipulated
Control vs. Experimenta
does not receive independent variable vs. receives the independent variable
Double Blind Study
fake pill/ sugar pill
participants and experimenter have no idea which group they're in`
Advantages and disadvantages of experiment?
Adv: only method that allows one to say cause and effect
Dis: experimental bias/ confirmation bias; sample bias; participant bias
info: watching people/ animals in their natural environment
adv: you're seeing the real deal; no lab needed
dis: can't control certain variables; people act differently when being watched; you must stay hidden
info: in-depth study of a single research participant (or a group); topic usually biological in nature
adv: gives it precedent; gives an opportunity to develop precedence over a particular issue
dis: rare/ potential bias
info: polls/ questions a large sample of people of assess their behaviors and attitudes
adv: cost effective; tons of info; short amount of time
dis: framing effect: questions worded weirdly or in the word order; not truthful (at times); need the right population
- info: positive correlation: move in same direction
- negative correlation: mvoe in different direction
- strength: relationship between two variables
dis: you cannot say cause and effect
correlational coefficient: __
a number indicates the degree and direction of the relationship between two variables (r value)
both move in the same direction
move in opposite directions
if r=0, there is no relationship; not linked
If r= 1, there is a perfect relationship; will never be seen
- There is a range:
- r=0.7-0.9 (strong relationship)
- r= 0.4-0.6 (moderate relationship)
- r= 0.1-0.3 (weak relationship)
What is a solution to resolving experimental bias?
- double blind study
- placebo effect
What is a solution to solving ethnocentrism?
What is a solution for sample bias when dealing with participants?
- random sample
- representative sampling
- random assignment
What is a solution for participant bias?
research methods that observe and record behavior without producing causal explanations; there is no manipulation of variables
Types: naturalistic observations, surveys, case studies
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