speed which permits attaining obstacle speed at the 50 foot obstacle height above the runway
target speed at which the aircraft crosses the 50ft obstacle height while accelerating to 140kts at a 15o pitch attitude
Maximum Braking Speed (VB)
Max speed at which an aircraft can be brought to a stop without exceeding the max design energy absorbtion capability of the brakes (3.96 million ft/lbs)
Maximum Abort Speed
max speed at which an abort may be started and the aircraft stopped within the remaining runway length.
3 sec reaction time at Max abort to select idle power
3 sec to apply brakes after idle power selected
allows for 20kts increase in speed after abort started
when abort speed > Rot speed than ROT = Abort speed
Land as Soon as Possible
emergency declared an da landing accomplished at the nearest suitable landing area considering the severity of the emergency, WX conditions, field facilities, ambient lighting, and command guidance
Land as Soon as Practical
Emergency conditions are less urgent and, although the mission is to be terminated, the degree of the emergency is such that an immediate landing may not be necessary
Suitable Landing Area
Hard surface runway, taxiway, or under/overrun
landing on unprepared surface or ditching is not recommended
BATTERY/GENERATOR/STARTER LIMITATIONS? Normal reading?
Battery: don't attempt a battery powered ground start if voltage is below 23.5V
don't connect external power below 22V
Starter: Duty cycle limited to FOUR 20 second cycles followed by cooling periods (1st- 30sec, 2nd-2min, 3rd- 5min, 4th-30min)
Generator: Inflight: +50 to -2 Amps
Ground/Inflight Voltage: 28.0V to 28.5V
Normal Voltage reading: 22.0-29.5 volts
If Generator is continuously below 25V available battery power is degraded and aircrews should land as soon as practical (should supply at least 25V to charge the battery)
Time limitations for zero-G and inverted flight. Tolerance?
Intentional zero-G: 5 seconds
Inverted Flight: 15 seconds
Due to gauge tolerance, the a/c may be at zero-g with gauge reading from +.25 to -.25G
Speed limitations. Turbulent vs. Thunderstorms/Gear and Flaps/Maneuvering/Operating
Max Operating Speed (VMO): up 316kts up to and including 18,769MSL
Max Mach number (MMO): 0.67
Turbulent (VG): Max 195kts. Recommended 180kts
Max Gear (VLE) and Max Flaps(VFE): 150kts
Maneuvering(Vo): the speed above which full or abrupt control inputs could resutl in structural damage to the airplane - 227kts. Full rudder deflection above 150kts will exceed the limits for the rudder system
aggravated spins past two turns
spins with the PCL above idle
spins with the landing gear, flaps or speed brake extended
spins with the PMU off
spins below 10,000 feet pressure altitude
spins above 22,000 feet pressure altitude
abrupt cross-controlled (snap) maneuvers
Aerobatic maneuvers, spins or stalls with greater than 50 pound fuel imbalance
Acceleration Limitations: assymetrical and symmetrical
a. clean: +4.7 to -1.0
b. Gear/flaps +2.0 to 0.0
a. clean: +7.0 to -3.5
b. Gear/Flaps +2.5 to 0.0
Dual only maneuvers
ELP’s or simulated Engine-out maneuver
NF patterns or landings
Allowable Fuel Types: fuel system limitations
1. JP-4, JP-5, JP8, JP8+100, JET A, JET A-1, JET B
2. Aerobatics operation is prohibited with indicated fuel less than 150lbs per side
3. max lateral fuel imbalance 50 lbs
4. Max engine operation with only the high pressure fuel pump is 10 hrs
Wind limitations: T/O, Touch and Go, Canopy, Tail wind
Takeoff (T/O or UP): 25kts
Touch and Go (T/O or UP): 25knots (20knots)
Wet Runway: 10 knots
Icy Runway: 5 knots
Tailwind: 10 knots
LDG flaps should not be used for takeoff in high x-wind: 10kts
Max wind to open canopy: 40 kts
Checks prior to spins/stalls
CLEFT: "clearing, loose items stowed, Engine check, Fuel Check (balance w/in 50lbs), Trim (elevator set mid-range)
max allowable aircraft in pattern?
what type of patterns can be flown?
at an NTA?
Max aircraft: 2
day only, no-formation, winds in limits for rwy of intended use, low approach only, must make all traffic advisory calls and position reports
Max airspeed: 150kts indicated a/s at or below 2500'AGL within 4 NM of NTA
Type of pattern: instrument approach, rectangular patterns and ELPs may be flown (left hand traffic). No overhead patterns
how is Max Abort speed/TOR/LRby RCR, GRADIENT (up/down), WIND, Weight, PA, TEMP, Runway Remaining?
How will electrical failure affect landing configuration and TP stalls?
- no signals to hydraulic selector manifold, therefore nothing will get done
- Required to use EMERGENCY system (doesn't req electricity)
- no electricity at all = cannot confirm flap/ldg gear positions
- normal flap ops is not available when BAT BUS has failed, or AUX BAT is only source of electrical power
how will hydraulic failure affect landing configuration?
- Ldg Gr doors are electrically sequence and hydraulically actuated
- lose hydraulic fluid = no be able to move ldg gear and doors
- EMER hydraulic system must be used to lower gear (gear door do not retract)
how will battery bus failure affect landing configuration and TP stalls?
-Flaps will still work (powered off hot battery bus only after EMER LDG GR HANDLE is pulled)
- normal operations not available for flaps and gear
- landing gear door will not retract (bc must use emergency system)
motions of the A/C about one or more axis following a stall, but before a spin
near stalled AOA
erratic A/S indications
random turn needle deflections
Spin like motions with unsteady yaw rates
unsteady movement in all axis
fully deflected turn needle
accelerating or decelerating airspeed
Steady State (Erect) Spins?
sustained yaw rate
400-500' loss of alt/per turn
AOA = 18+
Airspeed = 120-135kts
turn needle fully deflected
VSI pegged at 6000fpm
AOA = 0
turn needle fully deflected
Approx 30o NL
Accelerometer = -1.5 Gs
Airspeed = 40 kts
Established in Pattern
FUEL PROBE MALFUNCTION
If outer probe fail?
if middle probe fail?
if inner probe fail?
what powers fuel low annunciators?
Fuel quantity will always show quantity from the most outboard functioning probe so:
outer probe fails: it will read 445 +- 50# (fuel levels below that will be displayed accurately)
middle probe fails: will read 308+- 50# (fuel levels below that will be displayed accurately)
inner probe fails: normal indications until fuel drops to inner probe level, than show half the collector tank quantity of 20#
* auto balancing is inop
*fuel low annunciators (<110#) are powered by optical sensors and are separate from fuel probes; so they will indicate correctly when fuel drops below 110# for either wing.
*do not attempt to manual fuel balance w/ FP fail on AEDD.