Psych Chapter 2

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Psych Chapter 2
2015-02-09 23:08:33
Test One
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  1. What is a neuron?
    neuron-- functional unit of the NS responsible for receiving and transmitting electrochemical information

    the basic building block of the NS

    each one sends and receives signals
  2. Three major parts of the neuron
    dendrites: branches that stem out from cell body and receive messages

    axon: signal is sent down here to next neuron

    cell body: has a semi-permeable membrane, nucleus, and mitochondria
  3. Additional parts of a neuron
    myelin sheath: fatty substance that allows rapid transmission of messages

    axon terminal branches: smaller branches coming off of the axon

    Axon terminal buds: cap the branches

    vesicles: inside the buttons and have NT that can be released

    Neurotransmitter: cross the synapse, land on receptor sites of dendrites of next neuron

    receptor sites
  4. How do neurons communicate?
    • electrical and chemical language
    • neurons transmit info--electrical messages received by the dendrites and cell body
    • messages are passed along the axon in the form of a neuron impulse or action potential
  5. What is polarized?
    outside of the membrane is positive and inside is negative
  6. Electrochemical potential:
    sucks the positive ions in, depolarizing the membrane
  7. channels
    special gates that the positive ions go into
  8. Depolarization
    making the inside more positive
  9. All or none response
    action potential either happens or doesnt
  10. refractory period
    after AP, neuron rests before next AP
  11. Briefly explain neurotransmitter action at the synapse.
    action potential reaches end of axon--> branches--> enters buds and pushes vesicles downward, causing release of NT into the synapse

    At the membrane of the postsynaptic cell, NTs attach to proteins called receptors in a key into lock type of format--> post-synaptic potential
  12. Neurotransmitters
    1) regulate __
    2) Promote __
    3) Affect __
    • 1) actions of muscles and glands
    • 2) sleep or stimulate mental/physical alertness
    • 3) affect learning, memory, motivation, emotions, and psychological disorders
  13. serotonin
    • mood (big part in disorder= depression)
    • low levels lead to depression
  14. acetylcholine:
    responsible for allowing memories to be processed

    • low levels: Alzheimers
    • also for muscle contraction
  15. Dopamine
    pleasure enter [addiction caused by dopamine] (reward system)

    schizo and parkinson's
  16. GABA
    • number one inhibitory NT (relaxed)
    • you have anxiety if you lack it
  17. endorphins
    natural pain killers

    coping mechanisms
  18. Explain division of the NS
    CNS: brain and spinal cord; critical for ability to live; limited in plasticity; not a great ability to repair selves; reflexes

    PNS: somatinc and autonomic; all neurons connecting the CNS to rest of body; carries messages from sensory--> CNS--> motor
  19. First division of PNS
    somatic: takes in info from senses and sends to brain to let it be processed and perform action

    divided into sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent)

    • sensory takes in info
    • motor allows action to be performed
  20. Second division of PNS
    controls involuntary functions

    Subdivided into sympathetic (fight or flight) and parasympathetic (rest and digest)

    fight or flight: body is sped up: increased HR, breathing, blood flow

    parasympathetic calms: when one up, one down
  21. Hindbrain
    medulla: breathing; HR; automatic (damage leads to no breathing or HR)

    cerebellum: finely coordinated movement and balance; smooth precise movements  (alcohol affects this)
  22. Forebrain

    thalamus: sensory relay system; receives all sensory info except smell

    hypothalamus: hunger, thirst, sex, aggression

    limbic system: hippocampus--> short term memory/ amygdala: emotional memory and memory of others and self

    cerebral cortex (next page)
  23. Cerebral cortex
    - division? 
    - lobes 
    - functioning?
    - structure?
    two hemispheres

    four types lobes (two of each): temporal, parietal, frontal, occipital

    structure: wrinkled convolutions; biggest portion
  24. frontal
    high complex functioning and thinking
  25. Parietal
    • skin/ tactile senses
    • pain, pressure, temp, and touch location
  26. Temporal
  27. Occipital
  28. laterilization
    specialization of the left and right hemishperes of the brain for particular operations
  29. Left hemisphere vs Right
    left: logical, analytical

    right: emotion, risk-taking, creativity, etc.
  30. Genetic abnormalities
    down syndrome


    alzheimer's Disease
  31. What are the steps of action potential?
    1) inside cell body are positive and negative ions with positive being pumped out, leaving inside slightly negative (polarized/ resting state)

    2) A force (electrochemical potential) pulls the positive ions back inside through special channels called gates

    3) Depolarized once positive is back inside

    4) Actional potential fires an all-or-none response (either fires or not)

    5) refractory period (taking a rest)