A&P 2 exam 1 (part 2)

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melissag94
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295303
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A&P 2 exam 1 (part 2)
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2015-02-09 19:00:43
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anatomy physiologoy spring 2015
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Exam 1 Blood and Hemodynamics
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  1. the study of blood flow through blood vessels
    hemodynamic
  2. the fluid in blood
    plasma
  3. cells of fragments of cells are called
    formed elements
  4. red blood cells
    erythrocytes
  5. white blood cells
    leukocyte
  6. most cells you can see are
    red blood cells
  7. shape of red blood cells/
    biconcave disk
  8. red blood cells do not have a
    nucleus
  9. ___ blood cells tend to be larger than ___ blood cells
    • white
    • red
  10. what happens when you separate blood?
    • the heavier part goes on the bottom (RBC)
    • plasma is on top
    • thin layer in between (buffy coat)
  11. what does the buffy coat contain?
    contains WBC and platelets
  12. percent of RBC in whole blood
    hematocrit
  13. average percent of hematocrit in humans?
    45%
  14. is hematocrit is below 45% than you are considered?
    anemia - 30%
  15. what helps carry oxygen
    hemoglobin
  16. ATP can not be made
    aerobically
  17. when you have too many RBC (over 50%) blood becomes viscous and is
    polycynthermic
  18. too much RBC makes for poor? which could lead to?
    circulation and could lead to a heart attack
  19. asmotic buffer
    albumin
  20. what maintains equilibrium btwn 280-295
    albumin
  21. making of RBC
    erythropoiesis
  22. where are RBC made
    in bone
  23. committed cell
    designated cell
  24. goes through rapid mitosis
    erythroblast
  25. immature RBC
    reticularcytes
  26. after 48 hours, reticularcytes become
    erythrocytes
  27. decline in carrying oxygen from decreased RBC
    hypoxia
  28. this leads to hypoxia
    anemia
  29. has receptors that detect when oxygen is low
    kidney
  30. goes to red bone marrow causing RBC to be made
    erythropoietin
  31. how much hemoglobin are in 1 RBC?
    thousands
  32. these are manufactured by erythropoiesis
    erythrocytes
  33. has a ratio of 4:1
    oxyhemoglobin
  34. has a ratio of 3:1
    oxygen to hemoglobin
  35. ratio of 3:1 or lower
    cleaoxyhemoglobin
  36. function of erythrocytes
    gas exchange
  37. structure of erythrocytes?
    • polypeptide chains
    • quaternary structure
    • 4 heme groups
  38. a green disk in erythrocytes represents
    an iron containing heme
  39. holds an erythrocyte together and binds oxygen
    iron
  40. destruction of erythrocytes takes
    3 to 4 months
  41. where do erythrocytes get trapped
    in spleen and are destroyed by macrophages
  42. lost from body in urine
    bilirubin
  43. where does bilirubin appear
    in urine and feces
  44. engulf damaged blood cells and destroy them into their individual components
    macrophages
  45. when erythrocytes are destroyed what happens to them?
    they are broken into amino acids, new RBC and bilirubin
  46. when the blood gets artificially diluted with fluid is it known as
    athletes anemia
  47. disorder of globin portion of hemoglobin
    thalassemia
  48. when you have thalassemia you have a
    higher concentration of CO2 in blood
  49. have a problem with the heme group on hemoglobin
    sickle cell anemia
  50. when you have sickle cell anemia, the
    heme group bursts destroying the structure and blood transfusions are needed
  51. have more RBC, meaning you can carry more oxygen to perform better
    blood doping among athletes
  52. white blood cells are known as
    leukocytes
  53. the only complete cells
    leukocytes
  54. how do leukocytes move out of blood
    by diapedesis
  55. what is diapedesis
    squeezing through pores
  56. how do WBC move
    through tissues by amoeboid motion following a chemical trail
  57. 2 major types of WBC
    • granulocytes
    • agranulocytes
  58. contain cytoplasmic granules
    granulocytes
  59. 3 types of granulocytes
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  60. 2 types of agranulocytes
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
  61. are without cytoplasmic granules
    agranulocytes
  62. Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas (in order of abundance)
    • Neutrophils
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
  63. pores on surface
    fenestrations
  64. has 3-6 lobes
    multilobed nucleus
  65. characteristics of neutrophils
    • multilobed nucleus
    • twice the size of RBC
    • phagocytose bacteria
    • has granules
  66. engulf bacteria and destroy it
    phagocytosis
  67. characteristics of eosinophils
    • bilobed nuclues
    • course granules stain deep red to crimson
    • twice the size RBC
    • spec in nucleus
  68. this releases digestive enzymes to kill worms
    eosinophils
  69. characteristics of basophils
    • course, dark purple granules- so dark you can barely see the outline of nucleus
    • twice the size of RBC
  70. release histamine, attract other WBC to the area and act as an immune response
    basophils
  71. characteristics of lymphocyte
    • large, dark purple nucleus that occupies 95% of volume of cell
    • about the size of RBC
    • act as immune response
  72. cytoplasm of a lymphocyte looks like a
    crescent moon and has not granules
  73. characteristics of monocytes
    • large, dark purple nucleus
    • 3x the size of RBC
    • largest type of cell
  74. these leave blood stream acting to phagocytose viruses and bacteria
    monocytes
  75. the nucleus of a monocyte resembles a
    kidney and has no granules
  76. fragments of cells or what used to be megakaryocytes
    platelets
  77. process of blood clotting
    hemostasis
  78. rupture through sinusoid capillaries, large irregular spaces and create platelets
    megakaryocutes
  79. megakaryocytes last for
    10 days, age quickly
  80. do not have a nucleus so that cant make protein
    megakaryocytes
  81. 3 phases of hemostasis
    • vascular spasm
    • platelet plug formation
    • coagulation
    • prothrombin activator formed
    • conversion into thrombin
    • fibrin seals the hole
  82. is the vascular spasm phase of hemostasis what happens
    vasoconstriction reduces blood flow
  83. what happens during platelet plug formation phase of hemostasis
    platelets swell, and adhere to each other, which is an ex of a beneficial positive feedback mechanism
  84. what happens during the coagulation phase of hemostasis
    blood is transformed from a liquid to a gel
  85. has glucose attached to it aka agglutinogens
    glycoprotein
  86. what does thrombin convert
    fibrinogen to fibrin
  87. soluble, cant see it
    fibrinogen
  88. comes out of solution and becomes insoluble
    fibrin
  89. most common blood type
    O
  90. least common blood type
    AB
  91. if you have no agglutionogens on blood surface than you have what blood type
    blood type O
  92. anything foreign to your body
    antigens
  93. chemicals your body makes against antigens
    antibody
  94. when the same antigen and antibody binds what happens? opposite?
    • your body will try to destroy the antigen
    • leaves it alone bc body doesn't recognize it
  95. contains antibodies
    plasma
  96. universal recipeient? universal donor?
    • AB
    • O
  97. which blood type has no antibodies
    AB
  98. which blood type has both antibodies
    O
  99. people with blood type A have what in their plasm
    anti-B
  100. people with blood type B have what in plasma?
    anti- B
  101. people with blood type AB have what in their plasma
    no antibodies
  102. people with blood type O have
    A and B antibodies in their plasma
  103. RH (+) means ? RH (-)?
    • have more than 1 RH agglutinogen
    • have NO agglutinogens
  104. if you are Rh (-) you can donate to someone who is ____, but if you are rh(+) you cant donate to someone who is ____
    • RH(+)
    • RH (-)
  105. fluid going through blood vessel aka the study of blood flow
    rheology
  106. flow rate?
    1/V
  107. the more viscous it was, the
    longer it took for the fluid to empty out of the L shaped tube
  108. if you double viscosity of blood, it will be reduced to
    50% of what is used to be (F= 1/2)
  109. when donating blood what happens to the antibodies?
    they are filtered out
  110. A, B and O can give to
    AB
  111. A cant give blood to
    B or O

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