Functional Groups

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Author:
tanyalequang
ID:
295316
Filename:
Functional Groups
Updated:
2015-02-08 21:54:12
Tags:
velasco bio120 functional groups carbon c4
Folders:
biology
Description:
memorize by tues
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  1. Carboxyl consists of
    • a carbon bonded to an hydroxyl group and double bonded to an oxygen
  2. Carbonyl group consists of
    • a carbon double bonded to an oxygen atom
  3. Hydroxyl group consists of
    • an oxygen bonded to a hydrogen
    • Don't confuse with hydroxyl ion
  4. Amino group consists of
    • a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogens
  5. Sulfhydryl group consists of
    • a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom
  6. Phosphate group consists of
    • a phosphate bonded to two oxygen atoms and double bonded to another oxygen atom
    • the two single bonded atoms are negatively charged
  7. Methyl group consists of
    • a carbon atom bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms
  8. Properties of a hydroxyl group
    • polar, caused by strong electronegativity of the oxygen atom.
    • forms hydrogen bonds with water molecules, thus is good at dissolving organic compounds such as sugars
  9. hydroxyl compounds
    hydroxyl compounds are called alcohols (usually ending in -ol)

    • ex) ethanol
  10. properties of carbonyl compounds
    • compounds with a carbonyl group are called ketones and acetones
    • Ketones: when the carbonyl group is within the carbon skeleton
    • Aldehydes: when the carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton
    • Ketones and aldehyde groups give rise to two major groups of sugars, ketoses and aldoses
  11. properties of carboxyl compounds
    • Carboxyl compounds are called carboxylic acids

    • compounds with carboxyl groups acts as an acid, (donate Hbecause the oxygen and hydrogen bond is so polar)
  12. properties of compounds with amino groups
    compounds with an amino group are called amines

    • glycine is a compound that is both an amine and a carboxylic acid because it has both a n amino group and a carboxyl group.
    • amino acids are compounds with both an amino and a carboxyl group
    • amino acids act as a base (borrowing H+ from water or surrounding solution)
    • located in cells in the ionized form with a 1+
  13. properties of a suflhydryl compounds
    • compounds with a suflhydryl group are called thiols
    • ex) cysteine:
    • a sulfhydrl containing an amino acid

    when two sulfhydryl groups react, it forms a very stable "cross-linking" covalent bond found mainly in proteins. The "cross-linking" of cysteines in hair proteins maintains the curliness or straightness of hair.
  14. properties of phosphate compounds
    • compounds with phosphate groups are called organic phosphates
    • because of the phosphate group's 2- charge, it makes the molecule polar. 
    • Organic phosphates release a lot of energy when it's bonds break
  15. properties of methyl compounds
    • compounds with methyl groups are called methylated compounds
    • methyl groups are considered an "addition to carbon compounds and results to its different properties
    • methylated DNA affects the expression of genes
    • arrangement of methyl groups on male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function

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