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Carboxyl consists of
- a carbon bonded to an hydroxyl group and double bonded to an oxygen
Carbonyl group consists of
- a carbon double bonded to an oxygen atom
Hydroxyl group consists of
- an oxygen bonded to a hydrogen
- Don't confuse with hydroxyl ion
Amino group consists of
- a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogens
Sulfhydryl group consists of
- a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom
Phosphate group consists of
- a phosphate bonded to two oxygen atoms and double bonded to another oxygen atom
- the two single bonded atoms are negatively charged
Methyl group consists of
- a carbon atom bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms
Properties of a hydroxyl group
- polar, caused by strong electronegativity of the oxygen atom.
- forms hydrogen bonds with water molecules, thus is good at dissolving organic compounds such as sugars
hydroxyl compounds are called alcohols
(usually ending in -ol)
- ex) ethanol
properties of carbonyl compounds
- compounds with a carbonyl group are called ketones and acetones
- Ketones: when the carbonyl group is within the carbon skeleton
- Aldehydes: when the carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton
- Ketones and aldehyde groups give rise to two major groups of sugars, ketoses and aldoses
properties of carboxyl compounds
- Carboxyl compounds are called carboxylic acids
- compounds with carboxyl groups acts as an acid, (donate H+ because the oxygen and hydrogen bond is so polar)
properties of compounds with amino groups
compounds with an amino group are called amines
is a compound that is both an amine and a carboxylic acid because it has both a n amino group and a carboxyl group.
- amino acids are compounds with both an amino and a carboxyl group
- amino acids act as a base (borrowing H+ from water or surrounding solution)
- located in cells in the ionized form with a 1+
properties of a suflhydryl compounds
- compounds with a suflhydryl group are called thiolsex) cysteine:
- a sulfhydrl containing an amino acid
when two sulfhydryl groups react, it forms a very stable "cross-linking"
covalent bond found mainly in proteins. The "cross-linking" of cysteines in hair proteins maintains the curliness or straightness of hair.
properties of phosphate compounds
- compounds with phosphate groups are called organic phosphates
- because of the phosphate group's 2- charge, it makes the molecule polar.
- Organic phosphates release a lot of energy when it's bonds break
properties of methyl compounds
- compounds with methyl groups are called methylated compounds
- methyl groups are considered an "addition to carbon compounds and results to its different properties
- methylated DNA affects the expression of genes
- arrangement of methyl groups on male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function
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