Ch. 4 Quiz
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According to the text, what characteristic is positively associated with personality consistency?
general mental health
The ultimate criterion for judging a measure of personality is whether it.....
What are parts of the situationist argument?
- Situations are more important than traits for determining behavior
- Everyday intuitions that people have about personality are wrong
- Persons and situations interact to predict behavior
According to Kluckhohn and Murray, "Every man is in certain respects (a) like all other men, (b) like some other men, (c) like no other man." Which section of this quote most closely reflects what trait psychologists study?
"like some other men"
Which of the following psychologists is often credited with starting the person-situation debate?
Measurements of weight are made on an ____ scale
What are the responses to the situationist argument?
- Personality researchers worked harder to find single traits that could strongly predict single responses at a particular point in time.
- Personality researchers started to think more carefully about the importance of a correlation of .40.
- Personality researchers argued that Mischel's literature review was selective.
In order to improve personality research, researchers can.....
- Predict behavioral trends rather than single acts
- Measure behavior in real life
- Check for factors that predict consistency
What are Funder's conclusions?
- Both situational variables and personality variables have an effect on behavior
- Situational coefficients are similar in size to personality coefficients
- Most situational coefficients are actually between .30 and .40
When a researcher examines the association between behaviors at a party on Friday night and how many times someone volunteers to answer questions in class on Monday, she is looking at the association between ________ and ________.
Behavioral data; behavioral data
Citizenship behavior at work is predicted by which trait?
One difficulty in searching for variables that might predict consistency is that
the effects of such variables are subtle and are sometimes difficult to detect
Situationism is the position that
- situations are more important than personality traits in determining behavior
- Situations do not influence behavior
The behavioral measurements reviewed Mischel were...
nearly all gathered in laboratory settings
Based on recent research, what is likely to happen when an aggressive person plays a competitive multiplayer video game?
The aggressive person will evoke aggression from the other players
A recent review of the entire literature on social psychology concluded that the situational effect was about ________.
Mischel originally argued that personality coefficients seldom exceed ________, whereas subsequent situationists raised that estimate to ________.
The avoidance of drug abuse is associated with what trait?
Based on recent research, what activity might signal a major concern when selecting a stockbroker?
evidence that the broker loses big money at poker games
The arguments in Mischel's Personality and Assessment concerning the ability of traits to predict behavior were based on ________.
a body of research that actually showed support for both the trait perspective and the situationist perspective
Happiness is associated with what trait?
The large number of trait terms in the English language indicates that
- We need an abundance of trait terms to distinguish between different types of people
- Personality traits are an important part of our culture
- When it comes to personality, one size does not fit all
Personality trait measurements are typically made on an ____ scale.
Substance use is positively associated with what trait?
Attractiveness is associated with what trait?
Historically, personality psychologists have concentrated on ________ to evaluate the effects of personality variables, whereas social psychologists have concentrated on ________ to evaluate the effects of situational variables.
effect size; statistical significance
Funder and Ozer (1983) converted the results of three classic social psychological studies to effect sizes. After comparing those effect sizes with those typically obtained by personality psychologists, Funder and Ozer concluded that ________.
both situational and personality variables are important determinants of behavior
A situationist would interpret a correlation of around .30 ________.
as an example of a very small effect size
A correlation coefficient is a(n) ________ and mathematically ranges between ________.
effect size; -1 and +1
Which of the following would be an example of trying to improve the predictability of behavior from personality traits by taking into account the possibility that some people are more consistent than others?
determining if the behavior of high self-monitors is less predictable than that of low self-monitors
A fundamental problem for the trait approach is that ________.
people are inconsistent
The ultimate criterion for judging a measure of personality is whether it ________.
According to recent research, individuals high in ________ might actually be more consistent.
preference for consistency
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