Education Midterm

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Education Midterm
2015-02-10 11:46:47
Education Midterm
Education Midterm
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  1. Axiology
    • The branch of philosophy concerned with the nature of values
    • Seeks to determine what is of value
    • Ethics: study of human conduct and moral values
    • Aesthetics: values in beauty, nature, and the "aesthetic experience"
  2. Epistemology
    • The branch of philosophy concerned with the investigation of nature
    • Raises questions about the limits, sources, and validity of knowledge, the cognitive processes and how we know. 
    • Logic: concerned with making inferences, reasoning, or arguing in a rational manner
    • Deductive Logic: reasoning from a general statement or principle to a specific point
    • Inductive Logic: reasoning from a specific fact or facts to generalization
  3. Metaphysics
    • The branch of philosophy concerned with the nature of reality and existence
    • Raises questions about the about the nature of a person or the self and whether human nature is basically good, evil, spiritual, mental, or physical 
    • Ontology: raises fundamental questions about what we mean by the nature of existence and what it means for anything "to be"
    • Cosmology: raises questions about the origin and organization of the universe or cosmos
  4. Massachusetts Law of 1642
    • Ordered selectmen from each town to ascertain whether or not parents and masters (of apprentices) are providing education for their children.
    • Parents and masters who did not properly educate the children were replaced by someone who would 
    • Did not specify schools or require attendance but established the principle of required education
  5. Massachusetts Law of 1647
    • Ordered every township of 50 household or more to provide a teacher to teacher reading and writing 
    • Ordered every township of 100 households or more to establish a grammar school
  6. Brown vs. Board of Education Topeka (1954)
    • U.S. Supreme Court ruled that schools should be desegregated. 
    • States that segregated schools generate a feeling of inferiority that affects the child's motivation to learn 
    • Marked the beginning of the Civil Rights revolution
  7. A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Education Reform
    • Landmark report in the history of educational reform
    • Written by the National Commission of Excellence in Education which was appointed by President Reagan after the Russians launched Sputnik.
    • Described a "rising tide of mediocrity" that was eroding the educational foundations of society
    • Generated two waves of reform
    • Wave 1: higher graduation requirements, standardized curriculum mandates, increased testing for teachers and students, raised certification requirements for teachers, emphasis on homework and basic skills (mandates came from the state)
    • Wave 2: year-round schools, longer school days and years, teacher empowerment, parent involvement, emphasis placed on low achievers from the first wave (mandates came from teachers and educators close to the students)
  8. School Vouchers
    • A grant or payment made to a parent or child to be used to pay the cost of the child's education in a private or public school
    • A part of 6 national education goals established in 1989 to be accomplished by 2000
    • The law was not passed because of this controversial proposal
  9. Charter Schools
    Publicly supported schools established upon the issuance of a charter from the state, local school board, or other designated entity
  10. Measurement Movement
    • Edward L. Thorndike and Lewis M. Terman are two major contributors. 
    • Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed an instrument based on an intelligent scale that allowed comparison of individual intelligence to the norm 
    • Intelligence quotient (IQ): a number indicating the level of an individual's mental development, created by Lewis M. Terman 
    • Edward L Thorndike developed scales for measuring achievement in arithmetic, spelling, reading, language and other areas
    • Used in WWI to assess which men were suited for service and what kind of service 
    • 1/4 of WWI recruits labeled illiterate 
    • Tests were often used to diagnose learning disabilities and assess individual differences
    • Did not consider differences in school populations, and made subjective judgements about the teacher's quality and student potential
  11. Horace Mann
    • Known as the "Father of Education"
    • Spokesperson of the common school movement
    • Led campaign to organize Massachusetts schools into a state system and establish a state board of education 
    • Became school board's first secretary and and the chief state school officer 
    • Believed that education is the right of every child and that it was the state's responsibility to ensure that every child was provided an education 
    • Campaigned for public support of education and awareness of the problems facing education (poor facilities, substandard equipment, etc.)
    • Fought for professional training of teachers and established 3 normal schools (teacher training institutions)
  12. John Dewey
    • Major contributor to the progressive movement 
    • Progressive Movement: focuses on real-world problem-solving activities in a democratic and cooperative learning environment 
    • Supported progressivism by emphasizing the importance of student-teacher interaction and the social function of the school as a model of democracy instead of focusing on the individual learner
  13. Johann Pestalozzi
    • His philosophy incorporated the child centered sensory experience principles of Rousseau 
    • Believed in the natural goodness of human nature and the corrupting influences of society 
    • Believed in the development of the total child
    • Believed in individual differences and readiness to learn 
    • Recognized the importance of human emotion in the learning process - students need self respect and teachers need to give love
    • Instruction must begin with the concrete and move to the abstract
  14. Common School Movement
    • 1830-1865
    • State systems on education established and they were funded by direct taxation 
    • Moving Forces: the US population spiked because of acquired land and immigrants who settled in the cities due to industrialization
    • Provided education for the working class who could not afford it 
    • Upper-class Protestants saw it as a way to control crime and social unrest of those in poverty
    • Suffrage was extended to all white males which increased the pressure for taxes to fund the schools
    • Educational journals and organizations spread the ideology of common schools, popularized education and informed teachers of educational innovations 
    • Republican values and Christian virtues were taught but doctrine from specific denominations was excluded
    • Leading Proponents: Horace Mann, Henry Barnard, Catharine Beecher 
    • State taxation began to fully support all common schools in 1871
    • State boards and superintendents of education appointed to control distribution of school funds and organize a state school system
  15. Progressive Movement
    • Made schools more sanitary 
    • Lowered student to teacher ratio 
    • improved school efficiency and reduced political corruption 
    • activity based curriculum based on interests and  needs of the child (child centered curriculum)
    • Focused on art and creativity 
    • Integrate subjects in a way that is meaningful to the learner
    • Leading Proponents: John Dewey, Ella Flagg Young
    • Gave rise to the child study movement and measurement movement 
    • The movement ended with the educational concerns regarding Sputnik