Psych child development

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Psych child development
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2015-02-09 20:06:43
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  1. Stages of development
    • prenatal (conception)
    • infancy+ childhood (1-2)
    • early childhood (2-6)
    • middle childhood (6-11)
    • adolescence (11-18)
  2. Theory
    set of statements that describe, explain and predict behavior
  3. Continuous vs discontinuous
    • Con- slow, gradual
    • discon- stages
  4. One course vs many courses
    • hit same markers at similar times (same)
    • take environment into account (many)
  5. Stability vs plasticity
    • sta- usually associated with heredity (lifelong characteristics)
    • plast- responsive to experience
  6. Resilience
    ability to adapt effectively, to be able to develop even through adversity

    • what offers protection:
    • -personal characteristics
    • -warm parental relationships
    • -social support outside immediate family
  7. History
    • 1) Medieval Era (6th-15th)
    • childhood (7-8) regarded as separate phase w/special needs
    • 2) Reformation (16th)
    • Puritan "child depravity" views
    • 3) 17th century
    • John Locke's "tabula rasa" or blank slate view
    • 4)18th century
    • Rousseau's noble savages view
    • 5)Mid-20th
    • psychoanalytic perspective
    • behaviorism
  8. People involved in Psychoanalytic Perspective
    • Freud
    • Erickson
  9. Freud's Theory
    • -ID (bio needs), Ego (conscious), Superego (decides)
    • -5 stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital)
    • -discontinuous and nurture
  10. Erikson's Theory
    • basic complex resolved during each stage
    • basis of theories
    • discontinuous, nature/nurture
    • 1 course of development
  11. Classical Behaviorism
    • observable events
    • ex) Watson and Pavlov
    • stimuli and responses
  12. Operant Behaviorism
    • reinforces and punishments
    • (+) added - spanking
    • (-) taking away - video game punishment
    • skinner
  13. Piaget's Cognitive-Developmental Theory
    • 1) sensorimotor *birth* (environment)
    • 2) preoperational *2-7* (symbols-language)
    • 3) concrete operational *7-11* (solid thoughts)
    • 4) formal operational *11+* (abstract thoughts
  14. Ethology
    • specific time for certain capabilities to emerge
    • if you don't learn at certain time, its not gonna happen
  15. Vygotsky's Sociocultural
    • transmissions of culture to a new generation
    • social interactions necessary
  16. Ecological Systems
    • way child develops with relationships in environment
    • microsystem(direct)-->mesosystem(indirect)-->exosystem(indirect)-->macrosystem
  17. Clinical Interviews
    probes for participants point of view
  18. Limitations to clinical interviews
    • accuracy of participants memory/reports
    • distortions in participants recall/judgment
    • flexibility may make responses too varied
  19. Structured Interviews/Tests
    • each participant is asked the same question the same way
    • -eliminates interviewer bias
    • -efficient
  20. Limitations to structured interviewers
    • can still be affected by inaccurate reporting
    • not as in depth
  21. Neurobiological Methods
    • measures of autonomic nervous system is sensitive to psychological state
    • -heart rate, blood pressure, respiration
  22. Reliability
    consistency, repeatability of a measure
  23. Longitudinal Studies
    same participants studied repeatedly at different ages
  24. Cross-sectional
    people of different ages all studied at the same time
  25. Sequential
    same groups of different aged people studied repeatedly as they change ages
  26. Microgenetic study
    same participant studied repeatedly over a short period as they master a task
  27. Phenotype
    • observable characteristics
    • ex) skin type, hair color
  28. Genotype
    • genetic makeup that makes phenotype
    • ex)dimples
  29. Mitosis
    • DNA duplicating itself
    • identical DNA in next cell
    • conception-->birth
  30. Sex Cell
    • 23 pairs
    • one chromosome from each parent
    • ovum (egg) - X
    • sperm - X or Y
  31. Homozygous vs heterozygous
    two alleles are the same vs alleles are different
  32. Incomplete Dominance
    • a) take traits from both
    • b) sickle cell anemia
    • -homozygous condition
    • -black Africans
    • -abnormal red blood cells
    • c) sickle cell trait
    • -heterozygous condition
    • -during oxygen deprivation, recessive allele asserts itself
  33. Zygote
    • fertilization
    • implantation (30% won't survive)
    • placenta starting
    • dangerous phase
  34. Embryo
    • implantation --> 8 weeks
    • endoderm (gut, liver, lungs)
    • mesoderm (skeleton, muscle)
    • ectoderm (skin, nervous system)
  35. Fetus
    • 9th week --> end of pregnancy
    • a) third month
    • lung functioning
    • b) 2nd trimester
    • mother can feel movement
    • brain development surges
    • c) 3rd trimester
    • age of variability

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