Anthropology 101 Chapter 1

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Anthropology 101 Chapter 1
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  1. Anthropology
    The fiel of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology; includes cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, and physical, or biological, anthropology.
  2. Primates
    Members of the mammalian order Primates, which includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans.
  3. Evolution
    A change in the genetic structure of  population. the term is alo frequently used to refer to theappearance of a new species.
  4. Adaptation
    Anatomical, physiological, or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment. Adaptations result from evolutionary change (specially, as a result of natural selection.
  5. Genetic
    Having to do with the study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parents to offspring. Genetic mechanisms are the foundation for evolutionary change.
  6. What is Physical Anthropology
    The biological science that investigates how humans have evolved and continue to do so. The discipline that seeks to explain how and when humans beings evoled
  7. What is cultural evolution
    The mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture; the concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culture further influences the direction of biological evolution; a basic concept in understanding the unique components of human evolution
  8. Name the 4 Subfields of anthropology
    • 1) cultural, or social, anthropology
    • 2) archaeology
    • 3) linguistic anthropology
    • 3) physical, or biological, anthropology
  9. Cultural or Social Anthropology
    The study of patterns of belief and behavior found in modern and historical cultures.
  10. Archaeology
    The study of earlier cultures by anthropologist who specialize in the scientific recovery, analysis and interpretation of the material remains of past societies
  11. Ethnograpies
    Detailed descriptive studies of human societies.
  12. Linguistic Anthropology
    The study of human speech and language
  13. Physical Anthropology / Biological Anthropology
    The study of human biology within the framework of evolution with an emphasis on the interaction between biology and culture.
  14. What is Paleoanthropology
    the study of anatomical and behavioral human evolution as revealed in the fossil record (Subfield of Physical Anthropology)
  15. Bioarchaeology
    The study of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites
  16. Paleopathology
    The study of disease and trauma in ancient skeletal population
  17. Hominins
    • (including humans) are members of the Order
    • Primates,  the group of mammals that
    • includes apes, monkeys, tarsiers, lemurs and lorises.
  18. ethnocentric
    Viewing other cultures from the inherently biased perspective of one’s own culture. Ethnocentrism often results in other cultures being seen as inferior to one’s own.
  19. Evolution
    • ¤A change in the
    • genetic structure of a population from one generation to the next.
  20. Adaptation
    • ¤An anatomical,
    • physiological, or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the
    • environment.
    • ¤Adaptations result
    • from evolutionary change.
  21. Microevolution
    Small genetic changes that occur within a species.
  22. Macroevolution
    Changes that occur only after many generations, such as the appearance of a new species (speciation).
  23. Behavior
    • ¨Anything
    • organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli.

    • ¨The
    • response of an individual, group, or species to its environment.

    • ¨Responses
    • may or may not be deliberate, and aren’t necessarily the result of conscious
    • decision making.
  24. Culture
    ¤technologies

    ¤subsistence patterns

    ¤housing types

    ¤clothing

    ¤religion

    ¤marriage and family

    ¤values

    ¤gender roles
  25. What Is Anthropology?
    A powerful means of explaining variation in human adaptations
  26. Anthropology is comprises of what four subfields:
    ¤Cultural Anthropology 

    ¤Archaeology

    • ¤Linguistic
    • anthropology

    • ¤Physical (or
    • Biological) Anthropology
  27. Define Cultural Anthropology
    Study of the global patterns of belief and behavior found in modern and historical cultures.

    Cultural anthropology began with an interest in traditional societies, led early anthropologists to study and record lifeways that are now all but extinct.
  28. Define Ethnographies
    Detailed descriptive studies of human societies. 

    Form the basis for comparative studies of numerous cultures.

    Ethnographic techniques are applied to the study of diverse subcultures and their interactions with one another in contemporary areas (urban anthropology)
  29. What is Archaeology
    Study or earlier cultures and lifeways through scientific recovery, analysis and interpretation of material remains of the past societies (artifacts).
  30. Linguistic Anthropology
    Study of human speech and language
  31. A unique human characteristi
    The use of language
  32. Paleoanthropology
    The interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominins, their chronology, physical structure, archaeological remains, habitats, etc.
  33. Studies of Human Variation
    • Population studies examine how groups respond
    • physiologically to environmentally induced stress
  34. Anthropometry
    Measurement of human body
  35. Genetics
    The study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring.

    Genetic mechanisms are the foundation for evolutionary change.
  36. Molecular Anthropology
    • Cloning and sequencing methods are frequently used to identify genes in humans and non
    • human primates.
  37. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
    Double-stranded molecule that contains the genetic code, a set of instructions for producing bodily structures and functions
  38. What is the main component of chromosomes
    DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
  39. What is Bioarchaeology
    the study of skeletal remains from archaeological sites
  40. Paleopathology
    The study of disease and trauma in archaeologically-derived skeleton

    Investigates the prevalence of trauma, certain infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies, and conditions that may leave evidence in bone
  41. Forensic Anthropology
    Application of anthropological techniques to legal issues
  42. Primatology
    The study of the living nonhuman primates
  43. Applied Anthropology
    • The practical application of anthropological and
    • archaeological theories and techniques.
  44. Medical Anthropology
    An applied subfield of cultural anthropology that explores the relationship between various cultural attributes and health and disease.
  45. Science
    A body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation; from the Latin scientia, meaning “knowledge.
  46. Scientific Method-Process
    State the research problem.

    Develop a hypothesis.

    Test the hypothesis through data collection and analysis.

    If the hypothesis is verified, it may support a theory
  47. Empirical
    Relying on experiment or observation; from the Latin empiricus, meaning “experienced.”
  48. Hypotheses
    A provisional explanation of a phenomenon.

    Hypotheses require verification or falsification through testing.
  49. Theory
    A broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been substantially verified through the testing of hypotheses.

    Testedexplanations of facts
  50. Scientific Testing
    The precise repetition of an experiment or expansion of observed data to provide verification

    The procedure by which hypotheses and theories are verified, modified, or discarded.
  51. Anthropological Perspective
    A broad perspective that helps us understand the diversity of the human experience within the context of biological and behavioral continuity with other species.

    • By learning about cultures other than our own, we can avoid an ethnocentric view
    • of other cultures.

    • By recognizing that we have similarities with other animals, we may recognize that
    • they have a place in nature just as we do.
  52. Cultural Relativism
    Cultural relativism is the view that cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental contexts and should first be understood within those contexts
  53. Why the Anthropological Perspective Matters
    • Anthropology offers a wider appreciation of the human experience, in order to understand
    • humans beings and how our species came to be.

    How humans differ from and are similar to other animals, including nonhuman primates

    • ¤Understand the limits
    • and potentials of humankind

    Allows us to understand other people’s concerns and view our own culture from a broader perspective
  54. 1.Hominins are
    members of the evolutionary lineage that includes ourselves, modern Homo
    sapiens.

    a)True

    b)False
    Answer: a 

    Hominins are members of the evolutionary lineage that includes ourselves.
  55. 2.Culture is

    a)inherited by a simple genetic transmission.

    b)a biological trait of our species.

    c)learned.

    d)the strategy by which many mammals adapt to their environment.
    Answer: c

    Culture is learned
  56. 3.Anthropologists who conduct excavations in order to recover artifacts are

    a)archaeologists

    b)ethnologists

    c)linguists

    d)medical anthropologists
    Answer: a

    Anthropologists who conduct excavations in order to recover artifacts are archaeologists.
  57. 4.Physical anthropologists developed techniques for measuring the human body. These type of measurements are called:

    a)calibration

    b)dermatoglyphics

    c)genetics

    d)anthropometrics
    Answer: d

    • Physical anthropologists developed techniques for
    • measuring the human body. These type of measurements are called anthropometrics.

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