Anthropology 101 Chapter 1
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The fiel of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology; includes cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, and physical, or biological, anthropology.
Members of the mammalian order Primates, which includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans.
A change in the genetic structure of population. the term is alo frequently used to refer to theappearance of a new species.
Anatomical, physiological, or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment. Adaptations result from evolutionary change (specially, as a result of natural selection.
Having to do with the study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parents to offspring. Genetic mechanisms are the foundation for evolutionary change.
What is Physical Anthropology
The biological science that investigates how humans have evolved and continue to do so. The discipline that seeks to explain how and when humans beings evoled
What is cultural evolution
The mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture; the concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culture further influences the direction of biological evolution; a basic concept in understanding the unique components of human evolution
Name the 4 Subfields of anthropology
- 1) cultural, or social, anthropology
- 2) archaeology
- 3) linguistic anthropology
- 3) physical, or biological, anthropology
Cultural or Social Anthropology
The study of patterns of belief and behavior found in modern and historical cultures.
The study of earlier cultures by anthropologist who specialize in the scientific recovery, analysis and interpretation of the material remains of past societies
Detailed descriptive studies of human societies.
The study of human speech and language
Physical Anthropology / Biological Anthropology
The study of human biology within the framework of evolution with an emphasis on the interaction between biology and culture.
What is Paleoanthropology
the study of anatomical and behavioral human evolution as revealed in the fossil record (Subfield of Physical Anthropology)
The study of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites
The study of disease and trauma in ancient skeletal population
- (including humans) are members of the Order
- Primates, the group of mammals that
- includes apes, monkeys, tarsiers, lemurs and lorises.
Viewing other cultures from the inherently biased perspective of one’s own culture. Ethnocentrism often results in other cultures being seen as inferior to one’s own.
- ¤A change in the
- genetic structure of a population from one generation to the next.
- ¤An anatomical,
- physiological, or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the
- ¤Adaptations result
- from evolutionary change.
Small genetic changes that occur within a species.
Changes that occur only after many generations, such as the appearance of a new species (speciation).
- organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli.
- response of an individual, group, or species to its environment.
- may or may not be deliberate, and aren’t necessarily the result of conscious
- decision making.
¤marriage and family
What Is Anthropology?
A powerful means of explaining variation in human adaptations
Anthropology is comprises of what four subfields:
- ¤Physical (or
- Biological) Anthropology
Define Cultural Anthropology
Study of the global patterns of belief and behavior found in modern and historical cultures.
Cultural anthropology began with an interest in traditional societies, led early anthropologists to study and record lifeways that are now all but extinct.
Detailed descriptive studies of human societies.
Form the basis for comparative studies of numerous cultures.
Ethnographic techniques are applied to the study of diverse subcultures and their interactions with one another in contemporary areas (urban anthropology)
What is Archaeology
Study or earlier cultures and lifeways through scientific recovery, analysis and interpretation of material remains of the past societies (artifacts).
Study of human speech and language
A unique human characteristi
The use of language
The interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominins, their chronology, physical structure, archaeological remains, habitats, etc.
Studies of Human Variation
- Population studies examine how groups respond
- physiologically to environmentally induced stress
Measurement of human body
The study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring.
Genetic mechanisms are the foundation for evolutionary change.
- Cloning and sequencing methods are frequently used to identify genes in humans and non
- human primates.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
Double-stranded molecule that contains the genetic code, a set of instructions for producing bodily structures and functions
What is the main component of chromosomes
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
What is Bioarchaeology
the study of skeletal remains from archaeological sites
The study of disease and trauma in archaeologically-derived skeleton
Investigates the prevalence of trauma, certain infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies, and conditions that may leave evidence in bone
Application of anthropological techniques to legal issues
The study of the living nonhuman primates
- The practical application of anthropological and
- archaeological theories and techniques.
An applied subfield of cultural anthropology that explores the relationship between various cultural attributes and health and disease.
A body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation; from the Latin scientia, meaning “knowledge.
State the research problem.
Develop a hypothesis.
Test the hypothesis through data collection and analysis.
If the hypothesis is verified, it may support a theory
Relying on experiment or observation; from the Latin empiricus, meaning “experienced.”
A provisional explanation of a phenomenon.
Hypotheses require verification or falsification through testing.
A broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been substantially verified through the testing of hypotheses.
Testedexplanations of facts
The precise repetition of an experiment or expansion of observed data to provide verification
The procedure by which hypotheses and theories are verified, modified, or discarded.
A broad perspective that helps us understand the diversity of the human experience within the context of biological and behavioral continuity with other species.
- By learning about cultures other than our own, we can avoid an ethnocentric view
- of other cultures.
- By recognizing that we have similarities with other animals, we may recognize that
- they have a place in nature just as we do.
Cultural relativism is the view that cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental contexts and should first be understood within those contexts
Why the Anthropological Perspective Matters
- Anthropology offers a wider appreciation of the human experience, in order to understand
- humans beings and how our species came to be.
How humans differ from and are similar to other animals, including nonhuman primates
- ¤Understand the limits
- and potentials of humankind
Allows us to understand other people’s concerns and view our own culture from a broader perspective
members of the evolutionary lineage that includes ourselves, modern Homo
Hominins are members of the evolutionary lineage that includes ourselves.
a)inherited by a simple genetic transmission.
b)a biological trait of our species.
d)the strategy by which many mammals adapt to their environment.
Culture is learned
3.Anthropologists who conduct excavations in order to recover artifacts are
Anthropologists who conduct excavations in order to recover artifacts are archaeologists.
4.Physical anthropologists developed techniques for measuring the human body. These type of measurements are called:
- Physical anthropologists developed techniques for
- measuring the human body. These type of measurements are called anthropometrics.
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