SOC 100 - Exam 1

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tt23
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SOC 100 - Exam 1
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2015-02-12 05:20:46
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  1. A condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society.
    anomie
  2. The systematic study of human society and social interaction.
    Sociology
  3. The ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society.
    Sociological Imagination
  4. The sociological approach that views groups in society as engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources.
    Conflict Perspective
  5. The sociological approach that views society as a stable, orderly system.
    Functionalist Perspective
  6. The sociological approach that views society as the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups.
    Symbolic Interaction
  7. Functions that are intended and/or overtly recognized by the participants in a social unit.
    Manifest Function
  8. Unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants.
    Latent Function
  9. The undesirable consequences of any element of a society.
    Dysfunction
  10. A detailed study of the life and activities of a group of people by researches who may live with that group over a period of years.
    Ethnography
  11. A research method involving a carefully designed situation in which the researcher studies the impact of certain variables on subjects' attitudes or behavior.
    Experiment
  12. A poll in which the researcher gathers facts or attempts to determine the relationships among facts.
    Survey
  13. A research method using a data-collection encounter in which an interviewer asks the respondent questions and records the answer.
    Interview
  14. A statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables.
    Hypothesis
  15. A research method in which researchers use existing material and analyze data that were originally collected by others.
    Secondary Analysis
  16. Sociological research methods that use interpretive description (words) rather than statistics (numbers) to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships.
    Qualitative Research
  17. Sociological research methods that are based on the goal of scientific objectivity and that focus on data that can be measured numerically.
    Quantitative Research
  18. In sociological research, the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure.
    Validity
  19. In sociological research, the extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results when applied to different individuals at one time or to the same individuals over time.
    Reliability
  20. In an experiment, the variable assumed to be caused by the independent variable(s).
    Dependent Variable
  21. In an experiment, the variable assumed to be the cause of the relationship between variables.
    Independent Variable
  22. In sociological research, any concept with measurable traits or characteristics that can change or vary from one person, time, situation, or society to another.
    Variable
  23. The knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society.
    Culture
  24. A group of people who share a distinctive set of cultural beliefs and behaviors that differs in some significant way from that of the larger society.
    Subculture
  25. A group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles.
    Counterculture
  26. Customs and practices that occur across all societies.
    Cultural Universal
  27. The disorientation that people feel when they encounter cultures radically different from their own and believe they cannot depend on their own taken-for-granted assumptions about life.
    Culture Shock
  28. Classical music, opera, ballet, live theater, and other activities usually patronized by elite audiences.
    High Culture
  29. The component of culture that consists of activities, products, and services that are assumed to appeal primarily to members of the middle and working classes.
    Popular Culture
  30. The practice of judging all other cultures by one's own culture.
    Ethnocentrism
  31. Established rules of behavior or standards of conduct.
    Norms
  32. Collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture.
    Values
  33. Strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture.
    Mores
  34. Informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture.
    Folkway
  35. The physical or technological aspects of a society.
    Material Culture
  36. Ways of using material objects; customs, beliefs, philosophies, governments and patterns of communication.
    Non-Material Culture
  37. Rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior.
    Sanctions
  38. The lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society.
    Socialization
  39. Anything that meaningfully represents something else.
    Symbol
  40. Charles Horton Cooley's term for the way in which a person's sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others.
    Looking-glass self
  41. Erving Goffman's term for people's efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are os favorable to their own interest or image.
    Impression Management (presentation of self)
  42. George Herbert Mead's term for the child's awareness of the demands and expectations of the society as a whole or of the child's subculture.
    Generalized Other
  43. The process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person in order to understand the world from that person's point of view.
    Role-Taking
  44. Erving Goffman's term for a place where people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and come under the control of the officials who run the institution.
    Total Institution
  45. The process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles.
    Anticipatory Socialization
  46. The process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in one's background and experience.
    Re-socialization
  47. The persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society.
    Agents of Socialization
  48. A ritual marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another.
    Rites of Passage
  49. Stages of the Self (Mead)
    • The Preparatory Stage (infant)
    • The Play Stage (role playing & role taking)
    • The Game State (values & morals)
  50. A system of ideas that represent the most powerful group in a society.
    Dominant Ideology
  51. Specialized language that distinguishes a subculture from the wider society.
    Argot
  52. Temporary but widely copied activity followed enthusiastically by large numbers of people.
    Fads
  53. A currently valued style of behavior, thinking, or appearance that is longer lasting and more widespread than a fad.
    Fashion

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