CA Blood

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Anonymous
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295482
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CA Blood
Updated:
2015-02-10 10:37:58
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anatomy
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  1. Plasma
    liquid portion (50 – 60% of blood volume) in circulation.
  2. Serum
    the part of blood that is like water and that contains substances (called antibodies) that fight disease. liquid in test tube after forming a blood clot.
  3. Anemia
    inadequate erythropoiesis or hemoglobin synthesis, a condition marked by a deficiency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in pallor and weariness.
  4. Polycythemia
    an excess of RBCs, increased blood volume, pressure, viscosity can lead to embolism, stroke or heart failure
  5. Hematocrit
    The hematocrit measures how much space in the blood is occupied by red blood cells. It is useful when evaluating a person for anemia.
  6. Hemoglobin
    a red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood of vertebrates. Its molecule comprises four subunits, each containing an iron atom bound to a heme group.
  7. hemolytic disease of newborn
    Abnormal breakup of red blood cells in the fetus or newborn. This is usually due to antibodies made by the mother directed against the baby's red cells. It is typically caused by Rh incompatibility, that is differences between the Rh blood group of the mother and baby. Severe hemolytic disease can cause anemia and heart failure. Less-severe cases include jaundice, and can lead to brain damage is left untreated. Also known as erythroblastosis.
  8. surface antigens
    Blood type is determined by presence or absence of surface antigen on RBCs.
  9. Leukocytosis
    an increase in the number of white cells in the blood, especially during an infection.
  10. Leukopenia
    a reduction in the number of white cells in the blood, typical of various diseases.
  11. Embolus
    a blood clot, air bubble, piece of fatty deposit, or other object that has been carried in the bloodstream to lodge in a vessel and cause an embolism.
  12. Thrombus
    a blood clot formed in situ within the vascular system of the body and impeding blood flow.
  13. Hemostasis
    the stopping of a flow of blood.
  14. Discuss the coagulation phase to stop bleeding.
    • 1. The initial phase of the process is vascular constriction. This limits the flow of blood to the area of injury.
    • 2. Next, platelets become activated by thrombin and aggregate at the site of injury, forming a temporary, loose platelet plug. The protein fibrinogen is primarily responsible for stimulating platelet clumping. Platelets clump by binding to collagen that becomes exposed following rupture of the endothelial lining of vessels. Upon activation, platelets release the nucleotide, ADP and the eicosanoid, TXA2 (both of which activate additional platelets), serotonin, phospholipids, lipoproteins, and other proteins important for the coagulation cascade. In addition to induced secretion, activated platelets change their shape to accommodate the formation of the plug.
    • 3. To insure stability of the initially loose platelet plug, a fibrin mesh (also called the clot) forms and entraps the plug. If the plug contains only platelets it is termed a white thrombus; if red blood cells are present it is called a red thrombus
    • 4. Finally, the clot must be dissolved in order for normal blood flow to resume following tissue repair. The dissolution of the clot occurs through the action of plasmin
  15. Describe briefly plasma and formed elements of blood.
    Plasma is 91% water and 9% protein. It is responsible for transporting nutrients, waste products and hormones.   Plasma can be obtained by collecting blood in a lavender top vacutainer tube containing  EDTA to prevent clotting, and then centrifuged to remove the formed elements (RBC, WBC, and platelets). The supernatant on top is the blood plasma. Serum is obtained by collecting blood in a red-top vacutainer tube with no additives in it.  The blood is allowed to clot (10-30 minutes) and then centrifuged to remove the cells and blood clot.  The remaining supernatant is called the serum.
  16. 4. Identify the blood cell types elevated in:
    acute bacterial infection
    Neutrophil
  17. 4. Identify the blood cell types elevated in:
    anaphylaxis (B. asthma)
    Basophil
  18. 4.Identify the blood cell types elevated
    in:
    viral infection (chronic diseases and cancer)
    Lymphocyte
  19. 4. Identify the blood cell types elevated in:
    parasitism and allergy
    Esinophil
  20. 5. What blood type can be safely transfused into a person with:
    Type A
    Type A and Type AB
  21. 5. What blood type can be safely transfused into a person with:
    Type B
    Type B and Type AB
  22. 5. What blood type can be safely transfused into a person with:
    Type AB
    Type AB
  23. 5. What blood type can be safely transfused into a person with:
    Type O
    Type A, B, AB, O
  24. Differentiate venipuncture and arterial
    puncture of blood withdrawal.
    • Venipuncture- Superficial vein, commonly used
    • Arterial Punture: arterial stick, for detecting blood gases.

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