BIOL 189 Exam 1 Tour of the Cell

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BIOL 189 Exam 1 Tour of the Cell
2015-02-10 11:44:44
biol biol189
nsc biol 189 exam 1
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  1. Know basic
    metric units of length, mass and time, along with prefixes (kilo, centi, milli,
    micro, nano)
  2. What are the 3
    types of microscopes?
    Light Microscope (LM)

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

    Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
  3. How are samples
    prepared, and what types of things are best studied under each type of
    • Light Microscope (LM):  Great to view cells, virus, or anything close
    • to atomic size

    • -Sample illuminated by light and
    • magnified by lenses

    • -May be sliced thin enough to allow
    • light through


    • Transmission Electron Microscope
    • (TEM):

    • -Sample bombarded by electrons, and
    • the pattern of electrons that make it to the other side determines the image.

    • -Sample must be extremely thin (100nm
    • or less!) to allow electron passage


    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM):

    • -Sample is dried and coated by very
    • thin sheet of metal, then bombarded by electrons
  4. What is the
    difference between resolving power and magnification?
    • Resolving power: Clarity; separation
    • of objects

    • Magnification: increase in apparent
    • size of the object (often on micrograph)
  5. What are the
    tenets of cell theory?
    • -All living organisms are composed of
    • one or more cells

    -All cells come from other cells

    • -The cell is the most basic unit of
    • life
  6. What defines
    the upper and lower limits of cell size?
    • Upper: Large enough to contain
    • macromolecules and organelles

    • Lower: Small enough to maintain
    • exchange surface (high surface area to volume ratio)
  7. Prokaryotic
    cells, description and function of ribosomes, nucleoid region, flagella, cell
    wall, capsule, pili
    • Ribosomes: translate plans (DNA/RNA)
    • into proteins

    Nucleoid region: plans for proteins

    Flagella: movement

    Cell wall: structure and protection

    Capsule: Sticky, protective coating

    • Pili: 
    • attachment
  8. General function and
    appearance of organelles, particularly: Nucleus, ribosomes, rough and smooth
    ER, Golgi, lysosome, vacuoles, vesicles, chloroplast, mitochondria
    • Nucleus: DNA/RNA synthesis,
    • ribosome assembly

    Ribsomes: Protein synthesis

    • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Ribosomes
    • make “rough”, in ER and cytoplast make proteins.  FUNCTION: makes membranes, make secretory
    • proteins(budded off in transport vesicle to the Golgi), enzyme synthesis

    • Smooth ER: Continuous with
    • rough ER, network of tubules, No ribosomes, but many enzymes in membrane.  FUNCTION: lipid synthesis (fats, steroids),
    • (in liver) detoxification, storage, and carbohydrate metabolism, transport
    • vesicle 

    • Golgi: Flattened sacs NOT
    • interconnected, and NOT continuous with ER. 
    • FUNCTIONS: receives products from ER in vesicles, finishes processing,
    • sorts, stores, and packages in secretory vesicles.

    • Lysosome: Typically animals
    • only, produced by Rough ER and golgi, digestive (hydrolytic) enzymes in sac
    • (dangerous if not contained).  FUNCTION:
    • digests food, invaders, and waste in cells to produce simple molecules that can
    • be used for energy or construction of other molecules

    • Vacuoles: Mostly plants, fungus
    • cells, membraneous sac that came from ER, golgi, or plasma membrane (can be
    • very large).  FUNCTION: digestion, growth
    • (water), storage (chemicals, waste)

    • Chloroplast: PLANTS ONLY.  FUNCTION: produce sugars from solar energy
    • (photosynthesis)

    • 3 membrane-bound compartments,
    • Area between inner and outer membranes, area enclosed by inner membrane
    • containing stroma, Grana-stacks of discs containing chlorphyll

    • Mitochondria: Center of
    • cellular respiration-conversion of chemical energy into food to ATP, (two fluid
    • filled compartments-Inner membrane space and Inner membrane-enclosed area,
    • fluid is mitchondrial matrix), Inner membrane highly folded into cristae, and
    • contains enzymes to make ATP, highly metabolically active cells have more
    • mitochondria, contains unique DNA and simple ribosomes in matrix
  9. What is the
    endomembrane system?
    • The endomembrane system is composed of the different
    • membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within the eukaryotic cells.  These membranes divide the cell into
    • functional and structural compartments, or organelles.
  10. What is the
    advantage of having internal membranes like eukaryotes?
    • Compartmentalization. 
    • By compartmentalizing the cytoplasm, eukaryotic cells can perform
    • several functions simultaneously independent of their environment.  Clearly an advantage to the self-sufficiency
    • of the eukaryotes as it gives them the ability to occupy more niches and adapt
    • to new environment more easily.
  11. Differences
    between plant and animal cells.
    • 1. A plant cell is usually larger in
    • size VS an animal cell is comparatively smaller in size.

    • 2. Plants are enclosed by a rigid
    • cellulose cell wall in addition to plasma membrane VS animal cell is enclosed
    • by a thin, flexible plasma membrane only

    • 3. Plant cell cannot change its shape
    • VS animal cells can often change its shape

    • 4. Plastids are present. Plant cells
    • exposed to sunlight contain chloroplast VS animal cells Plastids is absent

    • 5. A mature plant cell contains a
    • large central vacuole VS an animal cell possesses many small vacuole.

    • 6. Nucleus lies on one side in the
    • peripheral cytoplasm in plants VS nucleus lies in the center for animals

    • 7. Centrioles are usually absent
    • expect in motile cells of lower plants VS centrioles practically present in
    • animals cells

    • 8. Lysosomes are rare VS lysosomes are
    • ALWAYS present in animal cells

    • 9. Reserve food is generally in the
    • form of starch in plants VS reserve food is usually glycogen in animals

    • 10. Plant cells synthesis all amino
    • acids, coenzymes and vitamins required by them VS animal cells cannot
    • synthesize all the amino acids, coenzymes and vitamins required by them

    • 11. Plant cell does not burst if
    • placed in hypotonic solution due to the presence of the cell wall VS animal
    • cells lacking contractile vacuoles usually burst, if placed in hypertonic
    • solution.
  12. Function and
    structure of the cytoskeleton
    • Mesh of fibers in the cytoplasm.  Its function is to maintains cell shape when
    • cell wall is absent, anchors and moves organelles, movement of cells, carries
    • physical signals from outside cells to inside.
  13. Cell junction
    in plants and animals: basic
    structure and function


    • Binds cells together, allows
    • communication through movement of substances
  14. What is
    extracellular matrix?
    • It is the sticky coat surrounding animal cells.  It holds the tissue together, regulates cell
    • behavior, and supports.
  15. Essay Question:
    Name and briefly describe three difference and three similarities between
    prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
    • Prokaryotic
    • cells have no membrane around nucleoid regon, where Eukaryotic cells have a
    • membrane around the nuclear regon. This allows the Eukaryotic cells to be
    • larger because the internal membrane provides sufficient surface for metabolic
    • activity


    • Prokaryotic
    • cells have a cell wall for shape and protection, while Eukaryotic cell have a
    • cytoskeleton


    • Prokaryotic
    • cells have pili for attachment purposes, while Eukaryotic cells have cell
    • junctions to connect cells together