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metric units of length, mass and time, along with prefixes (kilo, centi, milli,
What are the 3
types of microscopes?
Light Microscope (LM)
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
How are samples
prepared, and what types of things are best studied under each type of
- Light Microscope (LM): Great to view cells, virus, or anything close
- to atomic size
- -Sample illuminated by light and
- magnified by lenses
- -May be sliced thin enough to allow
- light through
- Transmission Electron Microscope
- -Sample bombarded by electrons, and
- the pattern of electrons that make it to the other side determines the image.
- -Sample must be extremely thin (100nm
- or less!) to allow electron passage
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM):
- -Sample is dried and coated by very
- thin sheet of metal, then bombarded by electrons
What is the
difference between resolving power and magnification?
- Resolving power: Clarity; separation
- of objects
- Magnification: increase in apparent
- size of the object (often on micrograph)
What are the
tenets of cell theory?
- -All living organisms are composed of
- one or more cells
-All cells come from other cells
- -The cell is the most basic unit of
the upper and lower limits of cell size?
- Upper: Large enough to contain
- macromolecules and organelles
- Lower: Small enough to maintain
- exchange surface (high surface area to volume ratio)
cells, description and function of ribosomes, nucleoid region, flagella, cell
wall, capsule, pili
- Ribosomes: translate plans (DNA/RNA)
- into proteins
Nucleoid region: plans for proteins
Cell wall: structure and protection
Capsule: Sticky, protective coating
General function and
appearance of organelles, particularly: Nucleus, ribosomes, rough and smooth
ER, Golgi, lysosome, vacuoles, vesicles, chloroplast, mitochondria
- Nucleus: DNA/RNA synthesis,
- ribosome assembly
Ribsomes: Protein synthesis
- Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Ribosomes
- make “rough”, in ER and cytoplast make proteins. FUNCTION: makes membranes, make secretory
- proteins(budded off in transport vesicle to the Golgi), enzyme synthesis
- Smooth ER: Continuous with
- rough ER, network of tubules, No ribosomes, but many enzymes in membrane. FUNCTION: lipid synthesis (fats, steroids),
- (in liver) detoxification, storage, and carbohydrate metabolism, transport
- Golgi: Flattened sacs NOT
- interconnected, and NOT continuous with ER.
- FUNCTIONS: receives products from ER in vesicles, finishes processing,
- sorts, stores, and packages in secretory vesicles.
- Lysosome: Typically animals
- only, produced by Rough ER and golgi, digestive (hydrolytic) enzymes in sac
- (dangerous if not contained). FUNCTION:
- digests food, invaders, and waste in cells to produce simple molecules that can
- be used for energy or construction of other molecules
- Vacuoles: Mostly plants, fungus
- cells, membraneous sac that came from ER, golgi, or plasma membrane (can be
- very large). FUNCTION: digestion, growth
- (water), storage (chemicals, waste)
- Chloroplast: PLANTS ONLY. FUNCTION: produce sugars from solar energy
- 3 membrane-bound compartments,
- Area between inner and outer membranes, area enclosed by inner membrane
- containing stroma, Grana-stacks of discs containing chlorphyll
- Mitochondria: Center of
- cellular respiration-conversion of chemical energy into food to ATP, (two fluid
- filled compartments-Inner membrane space and Inner membrane-enclosed area,
- fluid is mitchondrial matrix), Inner membrane highly folded into cristae, and
- contains enzymes to make ATP, highly metabolically active cells have more
- mitochondria, contains unique DNA and simple ribosomes in matrix
What is the
- The endomembrane system is composed of the different
- membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within the eukaryotic cells. These membranes divide the cell into
- functional and structural compartments, or organelles.
What is the
advantage of having internal membranes like eukaryotes?
- By compartmentalizing the cytoplasm, eukaryotic cells can perform
- several functions simultaneously independent of their environment. Clearly an advantage to the self-sufficiency
- of the eukaryotes as it gives them the ability to occupy more niches and adapt
- to new environment more easily.
between plant and animal cells.
- 1. A plant cell is usually larger in
- size VS an animal cell is comparatively smaller in size.
- 2. Plants are enclosed by a rigid
- cellulose cell wall in addition to plasma membrane VS animal cell is enclosed
- by a thin, flexible plasma membrane only
- 3. Plant cell cannot change its shape
- VS animal cells can often change its shape
- 4. Plastids are present. Plant cells
- exposed to sunlight contain chloroplast VS animal cells Plastids is absent
- 5. A mature plant cell contains a
- large central vacuole VS an animal cell possesses many small vacuole.
- 6. Nucleus lies on one side in the
- peripheral cytoplasm in plants VS nucleus lies in the center for animals
- 7. Centrioles are usually absent
- expect in motile cells of lower plants VS centrioles practically present in
- animals cells
- 8. Lysosomes are rare VS lysosomes are
- ALWAYS present in animal cells
- 9. Reserve food is generally in the
- form of starch in plants VS reserve food is usually glycogen in animals
- 10. Plant cells synthesis all amino
- acids, coenzymes and vitamins required by them VS animal cells cannot
- synthesize all the amino acids, coenzymes and vitamins required by them
- 11. Plant cell does not burst if
- placed in hypotonic solution due to the presence of the cell wall VS animal
- cells lacking contractile vacuoles usually burst, if placed in hypertonic
structure of the cytoskeleton
- Mesh of fibers in the cytoplasm. Its function is to maintains cell shape when
- cell wall is absent, anchors and moves organelles, movement of cells, carries
- physical signals from outside cells to inside.
in plants and animals: basic
structure and function
- Binds cells together, allows
- communication through movement of substances
- It is the sticky coat surrounding animal cells. It holds the tissue together, regulates cell
- behavior, and supports.
Name and briefly describe three difference and three similarities between
prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
- cells have no membrane around nucleoid regon, where Eukaryotic cells have a
- membrane around the nuclear regon. This allows the Eukaryotic cells to be
- larger because the internal membrane provides sufficient surface for metabolic
- cells have a cell wall for shape and protection, while Eukaryotic cell have a
- cells have pili for attachment purposes, while Eukaryotic cells have cell
- junctions to connect cells together