Chapter II Psychology

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Chapter II Psychology
2015-02-11 02:59:39
lifespan psychology

chapter II of lifespan development
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  1. Evolutionary theories suggest that ______  & ________ processes underlie human behaviour
    • genetic
    • physiological
  2. how many chromosome pairs inside a cell?
  3. ________ inheritance: when many genes influence a trait
  4. ______ _______ regulate gene expression by signalling some genes to "turn on" and other to "turn off"
    epigenetic markers
  5. Nativism
    • Unique genetic traits manifest in all members of the species
    • regardless of small differences in their environments
  6. Ethology
    • genetically determined survival behaviours 
    • assumed to have evolved through natural selection
  7. "genetic influence when relations are more similar than those who are unrelated"
    Behaviour Genetics
  8. Sociobiology
    • Genes that aid group survival
    • best chance for groups
  9. Psychoanalytic theorists:
    Developmental change happens because ________ and _______ affect behaviour
    • internal drives
    • emotions
  10. Behaviour is determined by both the conscious and the unconscious behaviour.
    Sigmund Freud
  11. 3 parts of Freud's Psychosexual Theory
    • Id
    • Ego
    • Superego
  12. weaknesses with psychoanalytic theories
    • hard to test and measure
    • overemphasis on sexual feeling
  13. 5 strengths of psychoanalytic theories
    • focus on emotional quality of earliest relationship with caregivers
    • emphasize that child's needs change with age and family interaction
    • provide concepts such as: Id, ego, superego
    • invented psychotherapy
    • emphasize development into adulthood
  14. The Humanistic alternative: The most important internal drive is _______________
  15. Strengths with the humanistic alternative
    inherent optimism- never too late to overcome early conditioning or resolve dilemmas if motivated
  16. extinction
    decrease in behaviour after repeated non-reinforcement
  17. Learning theory
    experiences in the environment shape the child
  18. Shaping
    learn a complex of behaviours through reinforcement of intermediate steps
  19. Strengths of cognitive theories
    • emphasize mental aspects of development 
    • such as logic and memory
  20. 4 stages of Piaget's cognitive developmental theory
    • Sensorimotor 
    • Preoperational
    • Concrete Operational
    • Formal Operational
  21. Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory:
    new experiences fit into existing schemes
  22. Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory:
    schemes must be modified as a consequence of new experience
  23. Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory:
    a balance between assimilation and accommodation
  24. Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory:
    Exists when more accommodation is occurring than assimilation
  25. Describe the information-processing theory
    use the computer as a model of human thinking
  26. Broffenbrenner's biological systems theory explains:
    development in terms of the relationship among individuals and their environments
  27. developed the Sociocultural Theory
  28. Developed the cognitive-developmental theory
  29. The main idea:
    adult behaviour and feelings, including psychological problems, stem from our childhood experiences
  30. Main idea:

    Humanistic theory
    Emphasized the basic goodness of human beings; each individual has an inborn drive for personal growth and achieving self-actualization