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chest pain due to ischemia, triggered by exertion/stress; relieved at rest.
chest pain persist even at rest (CAD), cell necrosis
resting adult HR < 60
resting adult HR above 100
period between the start of one heartbeat and the beginning of the next include contraction and relaxation
conduction failure at AV node, a condition in which the heart beats with an irregular or abnormal rhythm.
An ECG is a simple, noninvasive procedure. Electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest and connected in a specific order to a machine that, when turned on, measures electrical activity all over the heart.
amount of blood ejected by ventricle in 1 minute
is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart (left ventricle - to the body) during each contraction measured in mL/beat (millilitres per beat).
surge of pressure in artery
pacemaker, initiates heartbeat (sets HR), near the entrance of SVC, 50 msec to travel
the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood from the chambers into the arteries.
the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood
outer, tough, fibrous layer.
inner, thin, moist, serous layer.
a regular heartbeat, set by SA node at 60 – 100 bpm, adult at rest is 70 to 80 bpm.
muscular ridge contains part of conducting system, only found on right ventricle.
one of the small bundles of muscles attached to the ventricle walls and to the chordae tendineae that tighten these tendons during ventricular contraction.
Any of the prominent ridges of atrial myocardium located on the inner surfaces of much of the right atrium and of both auricles.
a depression in the septum between the right and left atria that marks the position of the foramen ovale in the fetus.
Describe the walls (layers) of the
- a. The epicardium is a thin layer of connective tissue and fat, and serves as an additional layer of protection for the heart, under the pericardium.
- b. The myocardium is the muscle tissue of the heart, composed of cardiac muscle cells called cardiomyocytes, which contract like other muscle cells, but also conduct electricity to coordinate contraction.
- c. The endocardium is composed of endothelial cells which provide a smooth, non-adherent surface for blood collection and pumping and may help regulate contractility.
Identify and describe the P wave, QRS complex, and T wave of ECG tracing.
- P wave – a deflection in an electrocardiographic tracing that represents atrial activity of the heart, SA node fires, atrial depolarization.
- QRS complex – the series of deflections in an electrocardiogram that represent electrical activity generated by ventricular depolarization prior to contraction of the ventricles.
- T wave - the deflection in an electrocardiogram that represents the electrical activity produced by ventricular repolarization.
Trace the blood flow starting from right
atrium via the superior and inferior vena cava.
right atrium via tricuspid valve into right ventricle via pulmonic valve into pulmonary artery into the lungs via pulmonary vein into left atrium via mitral valve into left ventricle via aortic valve into aorta into arteries into arterioles into capilliaries into venules into veins into superior and inferior vene cava into right atrium.
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