Chapter IV Psychology

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  1. Infants ______ weight by 3 months and _____ weight by 1 year
    • Double 
    • triple
  2. Describe the process of synaptic development in the first 2 years of life
    • Synaptogenesis occurs in excess
    • followed by synaptic pruning to increase efficiency
  3. Describe the process of myelination in the first 2 years
    • Occurs in the head area first
    • the reticular formation is slowly myelinated from birth until the 20's
  4. What is the reticular formation responsible for?
    attention span
  5. The newborn is born with a rich set of reflexes, __________ responses that are triggered by specific stimuli
    unlearned responses
  6. Describe the Babinski reflex
    sole of the foot is stroked and toes fan out and up
  7. Describe the MORO reflex
    sudden noise = arch back and throw arms and legs out
  8. Describe the plantar reflex
    curl toes under when an object is pressed under them
  9. Describe the rooting reflex
    soft touch on the cheek = baby turns head toward tough
  10. a word used to describe the different states of sleep and wakefulness in babies
    states of consciousness
  11. Neonates sleep ____ of the time
  12. What age presents evidence of circadian rhythms?
    8 weeks when the baby begins to sleep at night
  13. by ____ months the babies are sleeping for 14 hours a day
    6 months
  14. 3 types of normal crying
    • Basic cry: rhythmic and signals for hunger 
    • Angry cry : loud and intense
    • Pain Cry: very abrupt onset
  15. Abnormal crying in some babies; an intense bout of crying for no apparent reason
    colic crying
  16. The process of cartilage hardening into bones
  17. What type of development is responsible for the improvements in co-ordinational movements?
    changes in the number and density of bones
  18. 2 pathways that ossification proceeds
    • Proximodistal
    • Cephalocuadal
  19. Describe the a baby's ratio of water to muscle
    high ration of water
  20. describe the changes in fat content to the age of 1
    fat levels decline to near levels of an adult by the age of 1
  21. Describe the growth process of the heart and the lungs in infants
    • grow quickly
    • become more efficient by the age of 2
  22. 3 groups of motor skills achieved in infancy
    • Locomotor skills: crawling 
    • Nonlocomotor skills: head movements
    • Fine motor skills: use of the hands
  23. Describe the visual acuity of a baby less than a year old
    • poor visual acuity. 
    • Baby can see at 20m what adults can see at 400m
  24. Describe the development of colour vision at one month of age
    all 3 visual cones are present at one month of age
  25. Describe the auditory acuity  for a newborn
    • babies can hear long before they are born
    • nearly as intricate as adult hearing 
    • cam locate directions of sounds at birth
  26. The most developed sense of all
    touch and motion
  27. How can parents reduce the likelihood of crying in a baby
    prompt attention to crying in the first thee months leads to less crying later on
  28. T/F

    "children develop motor skills in different sequences"
    • false
    • virtually all children follow the same sequence
  29. Describe gender difference in motor skill development
    • boys face developmental delays, and have higher mortality rates 
    • boys are more active
    • girls are ahead in infancy
  30. in terms of smelling, infants prefer both ______&______ odour
    their own and mothers
  31. 3 techniques to study perceptual development
    • Preference technique 
    • Habituation/dishabituation 
    • Operant conditioning
  32. Describe the critical period related to development of sight
    • early visual stimulation
    • a specific quality of visual stimulation is needed to develop normal visual perception
  33. How would a nativist  explain perceptual development?
    theorists who claim perceptual abilities are inborn
  34. How would a empiricist explain perceptual development?
    argue perceptual abilities are learned
  35. At what age does depth perception begin to develop?
    3 months
  36. In how do 6 week olds evaluate depth perception?
    they use emotional indicators
  37. How do 5 month olds evaluate depth perception?
    use motion and interposition
  38. Describe how 1 month olds discriminate between speech sounds
    discriminate between single syllables
  39. Describe how 6 month olds discriminate between speech sounds
    • distinguish sound contrasts in any language (fades by 1 year)
    • discriminate between 2 syllable words
  40. Describe how 3 month olds discriminate between speech sounds
    recognize the sound despite who says it (male/female, young/old)
  41. Newborns have the ability to discriminate between mothers voice and another female. What about father's voice?
    cannot discriminate between males
  42. Intersensory intergration
    combining information from 2 or more senses
  43. The transfer or information from one sense to another
    cross-modal transfer
Card Set:
Chapter IV Psychology
2015-02-11 00:07:31

Midterm I test
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