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Infants ______ weight by 3 months and _____ weight by 1 year
Describe the process of synaptic development in the first 2 years of life
- Synaptogenesis occurs in excess
- followed by synaptic pruning to increase efficiency
Describe the process of myelination in the first 2 years
- Occurs in the head area first
- the reticular formation is slowly myelinated from birth until the 20's
What is the reticular formation responsible for?
The newborn is born with a rich set of reflexes, __________ responses that are triggered by specific stimuli
Describe the Babinski reflex
sole of the foot is stroked and toes fan out and up
Describe the MORO reflex
sudden noise = arch back and throw arms and legs out
Describe the plantar reflex
curl toes under when an object is pressed under them
Describe the rooting reflex
soft touch on the cheek = baby turns head toward tough
a word used to describe the different states of sleep and wakefulness in babies
states of consciousness
Neonates sleep ____ of the time
What age presents evidence of circadian rhythms?
8 weeks when the baby begins to sleep at night
by ____ months the babies are sleeping for 14 hours a day
3 types of normal crying
- Basic cry: rhythmic and signals for hunger
- Angry cry : loud and intense
- Pain Cry: very abrupt onset
Abnormal crying in some babies; an intense bout of crying for no apparent reason
The process of cartilage hardening into bones
What type of development is responsible for the improvements in co-ordinational movements?
changes in the number and density of bones
2 pathways that ossification proceeds
Describe the a baby's ratio of water to muscle
high ration of water
describe the changes in fat content to the age of 1
fat levels decline to near levels of an adult by the age of 1
Describe the growth process of the heart and the lungs in infants
- grow quickly
- become more efficient by the age of 2
3 groups of motor skills achieved in infancy
- Locomotor skills: crawling
- Nonlocomotor skills: head movements
- Fine motor skills: use of the hands
Describe the visual acuity of a baby less than a year old
- poor visual acuity.
- Baby can see at 20m what adults can see at 400m
Describe the development of colour vision at one month of age
all 3 visual cones are present at one month of age
Describe the auditory acuity for a newborn
- babies can hear long before they are born
- nearly as intricate as adult hearing
- cam locate directions of sounds at birth
The most developed sense of all
touch and motion
How can parents reduce the likelihood of crying in a baby
prompt attention to crying in the first thee months leads to less crying later on
"children develop motor skills in different sequences"
- virtually all children follow the same sequence
Describe gender difference in motor skill development
- boys face developmental delays, and have higher mortality rates
- boys are more active
- girls are ahead in infancy
in terms of smelling, infants prefer both ______&______ odour
their own and mothers
3 techniques to study perceptual development
- Preference technique
- Operant conditioning
Describe the critical period related to development of sight
- early visual stimulation
- a specific quality of visual stimulation is needed to develop normal visual perception
How would a nativist explain perceptual development?
theorists who claim perceptual abilities are inborn
How would a empiricist explain perceptual development?
argue perceptual abilities are learned
At what age does depth perception begin to develop?
In how do 6 week olds evaluate depth perception?
they use emotional indicators
How do 5 month olds evaluate depth perception?
use motion and interposition
Describe how 1 month olds discriminate between speech sounds
discriminate between single syllables
Describe how 6 month olds discriminate between speech sounds
- distinguish sound contrasts in any language (fades by 1 year)
- discriminate between 2 syllable words
Describe how 3 month olds discriminate between speech sounds
recognize the sound despite who says it (male/female, young/old)
Newborns have the ability to discriminate between mothers voice and another female. What about father's voice?
cannot discriminate between males
combining information from 2 or more senses
The transfer or information from one sense to another