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2010-08-10 16:49:26
Pediatric Nutrition

Pediatric Nutrition
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  1. Cause/Characteristics of marasmus
    • extreme caloric deficiency
    • cachexia/loss of subcu fat
    • hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension
  2. Causes/characteristics of Kwashiorkor
    • severe protein deficiency (sometimes with calorie deficiency as well)
    • pitting edema if BLE, sometimes progresses to BLE and face
    • hyperkeratosis/desquamation
    • dry/brittle/depigmented hair (flag sign in those with fluctuating nutritional status)
    • Decreased T-cell function and cell mediated immunity
    • fatty enlarged liver
  3. scientific name of vitamin C
    ascorbic acid
  4. causes/characteristics of scurvy
    • vitC def
    • follicular hyperkeratosis/corkscrew-coiled hair/gingival bleeding
    • normochromic/normocytic anemia in 75%
    • impaired collagen formation (brittle capillaries)
    • brittle bones (metaphyseal zone of tubular bones, sternal-rib junction)
  5. scientific name of vitamin A
  6. characteristics of Vit A deficiency
    • night blindness
    • cloudy, keratinized cornea
    • xerophthalmia
    • requires parenteral VitA (medical emergency)
  7. characteristics if VitA excess
    • scaly skin
    • pseudotumor cerebri
    • hepatomegaly
  8. characteristics of rickets
    • poor growth
    • hypoCa
    • hypoPhos
    • tetany
    • most often found incidentally on PE without the above
  9. lab values in rickets
    • low Ca (can be normal)
    • low phos (can be normal)
    • high Alk Phos
    • low 25-OH-VitD
    • high 1,25-OH-VitD
    • high PTH
  10. scientific name of Vit E
  11. function of Vit E and result of deficiency
    • membrane bound free radical, protects from free radical damage to cells and intercellular structures
    • deficiency leads to neuroaxonal degeneration and loss of reflexes
    • hemolytic anemia in premie
  12. scientific name for Vit K
  13. Vitamin K is necessary for production of what
    • prothrombin (Factor II)
    • Factor VII
    • Factor IX
    • Factor X
  14. Folate deficiency can cause
    can be seen in
    • macrocytic anemia (#2 nutritional cause of anemia)
    • neural tube defects if mom deficient
    • seen in children who drink goat's milk
  15. Thiamine is
    Vit B1
  16. Vit B1 is
  17. thiamine deficiency is associated with
    • Beriberi (think Ber1Ber1): paresthesias, foot/wrist drop
    • Wernike's encephalopathy: ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, confusion
  18. Vit B2 is
  19. Riboflavin is
    Vit B2
  20. Riboflavin deficiency is associated with
    • chelosis
    • sore tongue
  21. Niacin is
    Vit B3
  22. Vit B3 is
  23. Niacin deficiency is associated with
    Pellagra: dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea (note the 3 symptoms of B3 def)
  24. Vit B6 is
  25. Pyridoxine is
    Vit B6
  26. Pyridoxine deficiency is associated with
    In infants, seizures that respond to pyridoxine are associated with metabolic defects
  27. Vit B12 is
  28. Cobalamin is
    Vit B12
  29. Cobalamin deficiency is associated with
    megaloblastic anemia
  30. Zinc deficiency is associated with
    • can be caused by chronic diarrhea
    • Zn works on nucleic acid and protein metabolism so defiency affects rapidly growing cells
    • patients "don't grow", have diarrhea
    • rash, acrodermatitis enteropathica
    • hypogeusia (decreased taste)
  31. Nutrients that likely need to be supplemented in vegan diets
    B12, Fe, Ca, Zn