Radiology: handouts

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Radiology: handouts
2015-02-10 22:55:23

radiology handouts
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  1. Basic questions when evaluating a radiograph technique:
    • >film too light/dark?
    • >proper penetration?
    • >contrast?
    • >suitable density?
  2. An ____________ film is too light and ________ is too dark.
    • >underexposed
    • >overexposed
  3. On a film with ______________ the anatomic parts are indistinct or imperceptible. Film too light.
    Inadequate penetration
  4. __________ is considered when film is too light and anatomic silhouettes of interest are visible but not dark enough to be seen well.
    Insufficient film density
  5. When the film is too dark but the contrast is not affected
    Excessive film density
  6. A film with inadequate penetration, the anatomic parts are indistinct or imperceptible. Film is too light. How do we adjust?
    > kVp increased by 10-15%
  7. Insufficient film density gives us a film that is too light. The anatomic silhouettes of interest are visible but not dark enough to be seen well. How do we adjust?
    >Density must be increased. mAs increased by 30-50%
  8. Film is too dark, to fix this we must distinguish between too much density or too much penetration. The deciding factor is_______.
  9. Primary factor used when evaluating an overexposed radiograph.
  10. The contrast is used to determine if the overexposure is due to ________(__) or due to _________(__).
    • >overpenetration (KvP)
    • >too much density (mAs)
  11. Bones will be gray if overexposure is due to _________(__). _______ due to too much ___ will have little effect on the contrast.
    • >overpenetration (KvP)
    • >too much density (mAs)
  12. To be a diagnostic radiograph, a radiograph must have the correct _____ of contrast. For soft tissue, _______ is desired. For bone, ______ is desired.
    • >scale
    • >low contrast
    • >high contrast
  13. ______ decrease the quality of the radiograph, may lead to a misdiagnosis.
    Give examples:
    >artifacts: scratch, thumb print, chemical, dust
  14. May require sedation or general anesthesia as well as positional devices. Primary goal is devising most suitable posture for animal so an accurate radiograph of the anatomical structures can be achieved.
    Patient positioning
  15. When positioning the patient you must consider:
    • >welfare of patient
    • >proper restraint/immobilization
    • >minimize trauma to area of interest
    • >minimize radiation exposure to people assisting
  16. _____ is used to measure the thickness in centimeters of the areas to be radiographed.
  17. If not sure where to measure the animal, the measurement is made over _______.
    thickest area
  18. How many views should be taken to ensure different perspectives?
    at least 2 at right angles to each other
  19. Exposing a large area around the object you are radiographing increases the amount of _________ which decreases the _________.
    • > scatter radiatoin
    • > radiographic contrast
  20. Dry side of the darkroom should consist of:
    • >accommodating countertop
    • >film bin
    • >film hangers
  21. Two types of hangers:
    • 1. channel hangers
    • 2. clip hangers
  22. Disadvantage of:
    >channel hangers
    >clip hangers
    • >will hold chemicals and water
    • >clips break. leaves holes in film. can damage other film
  23. Wet side of the darkroom consists of:
    • >the developing tank and chemicals
    • >thermometer
    • >film drying area
    • >viewing screen
  24. ______ can occur if safe light is too close to the work area, too much wattage, or has the wrong filter.
    Film Fog
  25. All solutions be kept at same temp, variation in temp can lead to __________, a mottled density on the finished film due to irregular expansion and contraction of the film emulsion
  26. Two methods used to determine the developing time when doing manual developing:
    • 1. time-temperature developing
    • 2. sight developing
  27. The developing time is determined by using the temperature chemicals