Psych Chapter 4B

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Psych Chapter 4B
2015-02-10 22:05:06
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  1. What is sensation?
    taking in info from the outside world

    info goes to brain and gets intrepreted
  2. Perception
    process of taking raw sensations from the environment and interpret them, using knowledge, experience, and understanding of the world, so that the sensations become meaningful experiences
  3. What are the three approaches to perception?
    computational apprach

    constructivist approach

    ecological approach
  4. Computational approach
    computations by the nervous system translate raw sensory stimulation into an experience of reality

    Brain is a machine

    tries to determine the computations that a machine/ computer would have to perform to solve perceptual problems and tehn applies it to the NS
  5. Constructivist approach
    take different experiences and build them one on top of another

    fargments of sensory info construct an image of reality

    emphasizes the knowledge-based inferential aspects of perception

    past experiences and knowledge, including culture, create expectations of what you will see or hear
  6. Ecological approach
    we're good at adapting to environment because you can analyze very quickly
  7. selective attention
    filtering out and attending only to important sensory messages
  8. Selective attention:
    1) What is attention?

    2) What are the types?
    1) the process of directing and focusing psychological resources to enhance perception, performance, and mental experience

    • 2) overt (focusing on an idea; deliberate movement)
    • covert (shifting attention without moving)
  9. Types of selective attention?
    voluntary: goal-directed; purposely focus

    involuntary: stimulus-driven; something captures attention
  10. Inattention blindness
    allows us to focus on stimuli occurring in one part of the environment while ignoring stimuli in other parts
  11. Divided attention occurs when you __

    The __: multitasking
    simultaneously devote mental resources to more than one thing

    Stroop Effect/ Task
  12. Dichotic listening task

    occurs when different messages are played into each ear

    a skill that allows one to divide attention to do more than one thing at a time
  13. Figure-ground organization
    the figure are what is being focused on, while the ground is the background

    they have no ability to be separated
  14. Depth position is what?
    the ability to perceive three dimensional space and to accurately judge distance
  15. Depth perception is dependent on what?
    interposition: blocking something else

    relative size: the bigger the object, the closer

    height in visual field: the further up, the more distant

    texture gradient: change in texture

    clarity, color, and shadow
  16. Visual cliff
    tests depth perception in infants
  17. Bottom Up-processing
    information processing that begins "at the bottom" with raw sensory data that feed "up" to the brain

    specific, detailed info--> assembled as a whole
  18. Top-Down processing
    information starts at the top (make decisions based on prior experiences and knowledge)

    decision made on prioer knowledge
  19. Both __ and __ lead to perception.
    top-down processing

    bottom-up processing