Ch. 5 Cognitive Development

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Ch. 5 Cognitive Development
2015-02-11 23:48:58
Cognitive Development
Adolescent Psychology
How adolescents develope cognitively
Show Answers:

  1. What are mental operations?
    logical processes that allow for flexible thought
  2. What is the sensorimotor stage?
    the first stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, lasting from birth to about age 2
  3. What is the preoperational stage?
    the second stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, lasting from age 2 to 7
  4. What is transductive reasoning?
    proceeding from particular to particular in thought, without making generalizations
  5. What is inductive reasoning?
    gathering individual items of information and putting them together to form hypotheses or conclusions
  6. What is deductive reasoning?
    beginning with a hypothesis or premise and breaking it down to see if it is true
  7. What is syncretism?
    the act of trying to link ideas
  8. What is animism?
    the preoperational belief that inanimate objects have humanlike properties and emotions
  9. What is centering?
    the tendency of children to focus attention on one detail and their inability to shift attention to other aspects of the situation
  10. What is the concrete operational stage?
    the third stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, lasting from ages 7 to 11 or 12
  11. What is hierarchical classification?
    the ability to divide objects into nested series of categories
  12. What are class inclusion relationships?
    understanding that objects can be fit into different levels of hierarchies
  13. What are transitive inferences?
    the ability to solve problems such as "Tom is taller than Fred, and Fred is taller than Marty. Is Tom taller than Marty?"
  14. What is seriate?
    the act of lining things up in order from large to small or small to large
  15. What are conservation problems?
    tests used by Piaget to determine whether children had mastered concrete operations, such as understanding that changing an object's appearance does not alter its fundamental properties
  16. What is the formal operational stage?
    the fourth stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, during which people develop abstract thought independent of concrete objects
  17. What is hypothetico-deductive reasoning?
    a way to solve problems using the scientific method; only one factor at a time is varied while all else is held constant
  18. What is idealistic?
    insisting upon high standards of behavior
  19. What is hypocrisy?
    discrepancy between what people say and do
  20. What is pseudostupidity?
    the tendency to approach problems at much too complex a level and to fail, not because the tasks are difficult, but because they're too simple. Adolescents appear stupid when they are, in fact, bright but not yet experienced
  21. What is egocentricism?
    the inability to take the perspective of another or to imagine the other person's point of view
  22. What is an imaginary audience?
    adolescents' belief that others are constantly paying attention to them
  23. What is a personal fable?
    adolescents' belief that they are invulnerable and that their feelings are special and unique
  24. What is introspection?
    thinking about one's thoughts and feelings
  25. What are dialectics?
    an advanced form of reasoning that allows one to create new and better insights by integrating conflicting data
  26. What is an information-processing approach?
    an approach to studying cognition that focuses on the perception, attention, retrieval, and manipulation of information
  27. What is sensory storage (sensory memory)?
    the process by which information is received and transduced by the senses, usually in a fraction of a second
  28. What is short-term storage (short-term memory)?
    the process by which information is still in the conscious mind, being rehearsed and focused on (also called primary memory)
  29. What is long-term storage (long-term memory)?
    the process by which information is perceived and processed deeply so it passes into the layers of memory below the conscious level (also called secondary memory)
  30. What is processing speed?
    the pace at which the brain perceives and manipulates information
  31. What is inference?
    to develop new thoughts from old information
  32. What is thinking?
    the conscious, deliberate manipulation of information
  33. What is negation?
    a strategy used to disprove
  34. What is affirmation?
    a strategy used to confirm?
  35. What is elimination strategy?
    looking for evidence that disproves a hypothesis
  36. What is confirmation strategy?
    looking for examples that match a hypothesis
  37. What is a self-serving bias?
    looking at the world in a way that favors one's own opinion
  38. What is reasoning?
    logical, constrained, useful thinking
  39. What are principles?
    abstract, theoretical guidelines
  40. What is metacognition?
    the ability to think about one's own thought processes
  41. What is executive control?
    the ability to monitor and direct one's thought processes
  42. What are heuristics?
    rules of thumb, general strategies or principles
  43. What is the dual process theory?
    a theory of decision making that says that adolescents can logically and analytically make choices,  but that they often rely upon intuition and short-term benefits instead
  44. What is epistemology?
    one's beliefs about knowledge
  45. What are naive realists?
    believing that there are absolute, universal truths; creates difficulty in distinguishing fact from opinion
  46. What are defensive realists?
    believing that there are absolute truths but people are biased; differentiates between opinion and fact
  47. What are dogmatists?
    those who cling rigidly to one belief
  48. What are skeptics?
    those who reject rationality
  49. What is post-skeptical rationalism?
    the belief that truth is constructed but that some beliefs are more valid than others
  50. What is the cerebrum?
    the largest part of the human brain
  51. What is the corpus callosum?
    a fibrous band of tissue that connects the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain
  52. What is the parietal lobe?
    the cerebral lobe that is the center for solving problems involving spatial relationships
  53. What is the frontal lobe?
    the cerebral lobe that is the center for higher-order thought processes, such as planing and impulse control
  54. What is the temporal lobe?
    the cerebral lobe that is the center for producing and understanding language
  55. What is the hippocampus?
    the part of the brain involved with learning, memory, and motivation
  56. What is the amygdala?
    the part of the brain that creates primitive emotional responses to the environment
  57. What is the psychometric approach?
    an approach to cognitive development that focuses on the measurement of knowledge and thinking ability
  58. What is the intelligence quotient (IQ)?
    calculated by dividing the mental age (MA) by the chronological age (CA) and multiplying by 100
  59. What are achievement tests?
    tests designed to assess mastery of specific subject matter or skills
  60. What is naturalistic intelligence?
    the ability to identify plants and animals