the first stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, lasting from birth to about age 2
What is the preoperational stage?
the second stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, lasting from age 2 to 7
What is transductive reasoning?
proceeding from particular to particular in thought, without making generalizations
What is inductive reasoning?
gathering individual items of information and putting them together to form hypotheses or conclusions
What is deductive reasoning?
beginning with a hypothesis or premise and breaking it down to see if it is true
What is syncretism?
the act of trying to link ideas
What is animism?
the preoperational belief that inanimate objects have humanlike properties and emotions
What is centering?
the tendency of children to focus attention on one detail and their inability to shift attention to other aspects of the situation
What is the concrete operational stage?
the third stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, lasting from ages 7 to 11 or 12
What is hierarchical classification?
the ability to divide objects into nested series of categories
What are class inclusion relationships?
understanding that objects can be fit into different levels of hierarchies
What are transitive inferences?
the ability to solve problems such as "Tom is taller than Fred, and Fred is taller than Marty. Is Tom taller than Marty?"
What is seriate?
the act of lining things up in order from large to small or small to large
What are conservation problems?
tests used by Piaget to determine whether children had mastered concrete operations, such as understanding that changing an object's appearance does not alter its fundamental properties
What is the formal operational stage?
the fourth stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, during which people develop abstract thought independent of concrete objects
What is hypothetico-deductive reasoning?
a way to solve problems using the scientific method; only one factor at a time is varied while all else is held constant
What is idealistic?
insisting upon high standards of behavior
What is hypocrisy?
discrepancy between what people say and do
What is pseudostupidity?
the tendency to approach problems at much too complex a level and to fail, not because the tasks are difficult, but because they're too simple. Adolescents appear stupid when they are, in fact, bright but not yet experienced
What is egocentricism?
the inability to take the perspective of another or to imagine the other person's point of view
What is an imaginary audience?
adolescents' belief that others are constantly paying attention to them
What is a personal fable?
adolescents' belief that they are invulnerable and that their feelings are special and unique
What is introspection?
thinking about one's thoughts and feelings
What are dialectics?
an advanced form of reasoning that allows one to create new and better insights by integrating conflicting data
What is an information-processing approach?
an approach to studying cognition that focuses on the perception, attention, retrieval, and manipulation of information
What is sensory storage (sensory memory)?
the process by which information is received and transduced by the senses, usually in a fraction of a second
What is short-term storage (short-term memory)?
the process by which information is still in the conscious mind, being rehearsed and focused on (also called primary memory)
What is long-term storage (long-term memory)?
the process by which information is perceived and processed deeply so it passes into the layers of memory below the conscious level (also called secondary memory)
What is processing speed?
the pace at which the brain perceives and manipulates information
What is inference?
to develop new thoughts from old information
What is thinking?
the conscious, deliberate manipulation of information
What is negation?
a strategy used to disprove
What is affirmation?
a strategy used to confirm?
What is elimination strategy?
looking for evidence that disproves a hypothesis
What is confirmation strategy?
looking for examples that match a hypothesis
What is a self-serving bias?
looking at the world in a way that favors one's own opinion
What is reasoning?
logical, constrained, useful thinking
What are principles?
abstract, theoretical guidelines
What is metacognition?
the ability to think about one's own thought processes
What is executive control?
the ability to monitor and direct one's thought processes
What are heuristics?
rules of thumb, general strategies or principles
What is the dual process theory?
a theory of decision making that says that adolescents can logically and analytically make choices, but that they often rely upon intuition and short-term benefits instead
What is epistemology?
one's beliefs about knowledge
What are naive realists?
believing that there are absolute, universal truths; creates difficulty in distinguishing fact from opinion
What are defensive realists?
believing that there are absolute truths but people are biased; differentiates between opinion and fact
What are dogmatists?
those who cling rigidly to one belief
What are skeptics?
those who reject rationality
What is post-skeptical rationalism?
the belief that truth is constructed but that some beliefs are more valid than others
What is the cerebrum?
the largest part of the human brain
What is the corpus callosum?
a fibrous band of tissue that connects the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain
What is the parietal lobe?
the cerebral lobe that is the center for solving problems involving spatial relationships
What is the frontal lobe?
the cerebral lobe that is the center for higher-order thought processes, such as planing and impulse control
What is the temporal lobe?
the cerebral lobe that is the center for producing and understanding language
What is the hippocampus?
the part of the brain involved with learning, memory, and motivation
What is the amygdala?
the part of the brain that creates primitive emotional responses to the environment
What is the psychometric approach?
an approach to cognitive development that focuses on the measurement of knowledge and thinking ability
What is the intelligence quotient (IQ)?
calculated by dividing the mental age (MA) by the chronological age (CA) and multiplying by 100
What are achievement tests?
tests designed to assess mastery of specific subject matter or skills