The story of 13 year-old Genie is an example of a way that we can learn about the consequences of deprivation (and possibly trauma) upon development. Her story is an example of :
A. An experiment
B. Naturalistic Observation
C. A survey
D. A case study
a case study
Make sure that you understand experiments, independent and dependent variables.
What is an IRB? What is its purpose?
IRB: International Review Board
committee established to review and approve research involving human subjects. The purpose of the IRB is to ensure that all human subject research be conducted in accordance with all federal, institutional, and ethical guidelines.
If I go to several Starbucks coffee shops in Houston and distribute 10,000 surveys about childhood experiences and attempt to publish the results in the Houston Chronicle, claiming that this is “Texas’ Upbringing”, is there anything wrong with my methods? Identify at least 2 things wrong with my approach and explain why. (*Assume that 10,000 is an adequate sample size)
Volunteer bias: people are choosing whether they participate or not.
Social desirability bias: people will be answering their survey based upon what they think you want to hear.
What is the Hawthorne effect and why would it be a problem for researchers if they were attempting to study children’s use of table manners by attending family dinners?
Hawthorne Effect: people behave differently when they're being watched.
So if researchers are attending family dinners, children might behave either better or worse simply because the researchers are there.
Which one of these is the strongest correlation?A. .12 B. -.15 C. -.40 D. .24
Let’s assume that a correlation of -.79 between self-esteem and delinquency in adolescence exists. This statistic tells us:
A. The higher and adolescent’s self-esteem, the more likely he or she is to be delinquent
B. Self-esteem and delinquency are not correlated during adolescence C. The lower an adolescent’s self-esteem, the more likely he or she is to be delinquent.
D. Self esteem causes delinquency
C. The lower an adolescent’s self-esteem, the more likely he or she is to be delinquent.
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
Fill in the blank & explain: “ Correlation does not equal __________________.” What does this mean?
It means that because something is correlated it does not show that one is the reason for the other.
Give a brief example of an experiment that you could construct to find the answer to this question:* Do people who drink diet sodas score higher on psychology tests compared to those who do not drink diet sodas? [Identify your Independent and Dependent variables and anything that you would want to control for in your study.]
Independent: Drinking of soda
Dependent: scoring higher on psychology tests
Control: having one group drink soda and another not drink soda
What is a double-blind experiment? Why employ this technique?
Double blind: both participant/experimenter are blind to assignment
This technique may be employed so there are no biases.
Let’s say that NYU wanted to study academic outcomes of students who were in their freshman year during the attacks of 9/11. If they followed this group of individuals over a period of 15 years, asking them to complete interviews/surveys periodically during this time frame what kind of research design are they using? :
Name & define 3 measures of central tendency.
When would you not want to use the mean as your primary measure of central tendency?
Give an example of a naturalistic observation:
seeing how children react while in the classroom.
What do we mean when we talk about the concept of “plasticity” in development?
Plasticity: capacity for change throughout the lifespan.
Describe the 3 domains of change in development: Physical/biosocial, cognitive, psychosocial
Physical/Biosocial: nutrition, exercise, brain and body changes
Cognitive: (mental processes) abilities, language mastery, education
Be able to discuss the role of environment/genetics in alcoholism and nearsightedness
inherited biochemistry makes some people more vulnerable to alcoholismenvironments such as fraternities may encourage alcohol consumption
nearsightedness is mostly due to heritability
XXX- Superfemale Syndrome
female, reduced fertility
unusually long legs, torsos, but look normal
tendency for below average IQ/ low normal
problems with spatial relationships
1/1000 female births
XXY- Klinefelter's syndrome
male, some female secondary characteristics, sterile, tall, obese, 25% of mental deficiency, can see it with DS
1/500 male births
can be unaware
more extra x's worse prognosis
XYY- Supermale syndrome
male, taller than average, fertile but low sperm count, once thought to be more aggressive (high testosterone)
severe acne in adol.
may be unaware of abnormality
1/1500 male births
What is Trisomy 21? What are the major signs of this abnormality?
3 chromosomes on the 21st pair
physical appearance, mental deficits, Alzheimer's disease in later life
Be able to describe the following: IVF & ART
IVF: in vitro fertilization
fertilization that takes place outside the women's body.
the procedure involves mixing sperm with ova that have been surgically removed from the woman's ovary. if a zygote is produced, it is inserted into the women's uterus, where it may implant and develop into a baby.
(ART) assisted reproductive technology
general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy.
What is genetic counseling?
the giving of advice to prospective parents concerning the chances of genetic disorders in a future child.
List several prenatal diagnostic methods and describe briefly the techniques of each:
Amniocentesis: take sample of amniotic fluid around developing fetus, examine fetus (14-15 wks), can detect the presence of about 400 specific genetic abnormalities. 1% risk of MC
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS): sampling placenta tissue, early on in pregnancy (10 wks), 2% risk of MC
Nuchal translucency: ultrasound procedure (measurement of nuchal fold), screen for DS, 11-14 wks
What are the 3 stages of prenatal development (list)?