ChapterSix (Anatomy and Physiology Terms) Terms

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Marc817
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ChapterSix (Anatomy and Physiology Terms) Terms
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2015-02-12 17:56:57
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Chapter Six, Terms
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  1. musculoskeletal
    the skeletal and muscular systems combined
  2. muscle
    an organ, composed mainly of skeletal muscle tissue and connective tissue
  3. orthpedics
    the branch of medicine that focuses on diseases of the skeletal and muscular systems
  4. orthopedist
    one who specializes in orthopedics
  5. arthralgia
    condition of joint pain
  6. ataxia
    the inability to coordinate muscles during a voluntary activity or movement
  7. atrophy
    lacking development, or wasting
  8. bradykinesia
    abnormally slow movements
  9. decalcification
    the abnormal reduction of calcium in bone
  10. dyskinesia
    difficulty in movement
  11. dystrophy
    a deformity that arises during development
  12. hypertrophy
    excessive muscle growth
  13. myalgia
    muscle pain
  14. tenodynia
    pain in a tendon
  15. achondroplasia
    literally "without cartilage formation"; causes dwarfism
  16. ankylosis
    abnormal condition of joint stiffness
  17. arthritis
    inflammation and degeneration of a joint
  18. arthrochondritis
    inflammation of articular cartilage within synovial joints
  19. bunion
    abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe
  20. bursitis
    inflammation of a bursa
  21. bursolith
    a calcium deposit or stone within a bursa
  22. carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
    a repetitive stress injury of the wrist
  23. carpoptosis
    weakness of the wrist that results in difficulty supporting the hand
  24. cramps
    prolonged, involuntary muscular contractions
  25. Degenerative joint disease (DJD)
    a progressive disease of the joints in which the cartilage degenerates
  26. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)
    a condition that causes skeletal muscle degeneration with progressive muscle weakness and deterioration
  27. epicondylitis
    inflammation of bony elevations (epicondyles) near the elbow joint
  28. fibromyalgia
    a disease of unknown origin that produces widespread pain of musculoskeletal structures of the limbs, face, and trunk (but not joints)
  29. fracture
    clinical term for break in the bone
  30. gout
    caused by an abnormal accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints; usually affects the big toe joints
  31. herniated disk
    the rupture of an intervertebral disk
  32. kyphosis
    a spine deformity with a posterior curve of the spine
  33. lordosis
    a spine deformity with an anterior curve of the spine
  34. scoliosis
    abnormal lateral curve of the spine
  35. Marfan's syndrome
    congenital disease that results in excessive cartilage formation at the growth, or epiphyseal, plates
  36. meniscitis
    inflammation of the meniscus
  37. myasthenia gravis
    literally means "serious muscle weakness"; a condition caused by progressive failure of muscles to respond to a nerve stimulation
  38. myeloma
    a tumor that forms in the red bone marrow
  39. myocele
    protrusion of the muscle through its fascia
  40. myositis
    inflammation of a muscle
  41. osteitis
    inflammation of bone tissue
  42. osteitis deformans
    a disease that results in bone deformities due to acceleration of bone loss; Paget's disease
  43. osteosarcoma
    bone cancer arising from connective tissue, usually within the bone itself
  44. osteogenesis imperfecta
    an inherited disease resulting in impaired bone growth and fragile bones
  45. osteomalacia
    a gradual and painful softening of bones
  46. osteomyelitis
    inflammation of the red bone marrow
  47. osteoporosis
    abnormal loss of bone density
  48. paraplegia
    a condition of paralysis of the lower body, including the legs
  49. quadriplegia
    a condition of paralysis from the neck down including all four limbs
  50. polymyositis
    inflammation of many muscles, simultaneously
  51. rickets
    a disease in which the bones become softened due to the excessive removal of calcium for other body functions
  52. rotator cuff injury
    a trauma that causes tearing of tendons and/or muscles of the shoulder
  53. spinal cord injury
    trauma to the vertebral column
  54. spondylarthritis
    inflammation of the intervertebral joints
  55. sprain
    a tear of collagen fibers within a ligament
  56. strain
    an injury that results from stretching a muscle beyond its normal range
  57. temporomandibular joint disease (TMJ)
    inflammation of the temporomandibular joint that results in frequent, painful dislocations
  58. tendonitis
    inflammation of a tendon
  59. tenosynovitis
    form of tendonitis that also involves inflammation of the synovial membrane
  60. arthrocentesis
    a procedure in which excess fluids are aspirated through a surgical puncture in the joint
  61. arthroclasia
    procedure in which an abnormally stiff joint is broken during surgery to increase range of motion
  62. arthrodesis
    surgical fixation (stabilization) of a joint
  63. arthrogram
    an X-ray image of a joint that is printed on a film
  64. arthrolysis
    a therapy in which a joint is loosened of its restrictions
  65. arthoplasty
    surgical repair of a joint
  66. arthroscopy
    en endoscopic visual examination of a joint cavity
  67. arthrotomy
    surgical incision into a joint
  68. bursectomy
    a surgery involving the removal of a bursa from a joint
  69. chiropractic
    the field of therapy that is centered on manipulation of bones and joints, most commonly the vertebral column
  70. chondrectomy
    surgical removal, or excision, of the cartilage associated with a joint
  71. chondroplasty
    surgical repair of the cartilage
  72. costectomy
    a surgery involving the removal of a rib
  73. cranioplasty
    a surgery that involves of one or more bones in the cranium
  74. craniotomy
    a surgical incision through the cranium to provide access to the brain
  75. diskectomy
    a surgery that involves the removal of the intervertebral disk
  76. electromyography
    a procedure that provides electrical stimulation of a muscle and records and analyzes the contractions
  77. fasciotomy
    a surgical incision into the fascia, the connective tissue sheath surrounding a muscle
  78. fracture reduction
    a procedure that involves aligning the broken bones to their normal positions
  79. myoplasty
    surgical repair of a muscle
  80. myorrhaphy
    a surgical procedure that sutures the torn ends of a muscle
  81. Nonsteroidal respiratory distress syndrome (NSAIDs)
    the most common pharmacological treatment for inflammation or pain
  82. orthotics
    the field of medical support involving the construction and fitting of orthopedic appliances
  83. ostectomy
    surgical removal (excision) of bone tissue
  84. osteoclasis
    a surgical procedure that involves breaking a bone in order to correct a defect or an improperly healed fracture
  85. osteopathy
    a medical field that emphasizes the relationship between the musculoskeletal system and overall health within an emphasis on body alignment and nutrition
  86. osteoplasty
    the surgical repair of bone
  87. podiatry
    health care specialty that focuses on foot health
  88. tenomyoplasty
    a surgical procedure involving repair of both muscle and tendon
  89. tenorrhaphy
    a surgery that sutures a tear in a tendon
  90. tenotomy
    a procedure in which one or more incisions are made into a tendon
  91. vertebroplasty
    a surgical procedure that repairs damaged or diseased vertebrae

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