retina 2 NBEO.txt

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  1. What retinal cells undergo a graded potential?
    • Bipolar cells
    • Photoreceptor cells
    • Horizontal cells
  2. What does Tay Sach's disease present in the retina?
    Cherry Red macula
  3. What do emboli do in the retinal vessels?
    Cause CRAO, BRAO
  4. What do thrombi do in the retinal vessels?
    cause CRVO, BRVO
  5. What is the most common retinal vascular occlusive disease?
  6. What retinal vascular disorder are Hollenhorst plaques seen?
  7. What is associated with snowflake cataracts?
    Uncontrolled DM
  8. What is the 4-2-1 rule?
    • For severe NPDR
    • Severe heme in 4 quadrant
    • Venous beading in 2 quadrant
    • IRMA in 1 quadrant
  9. What is the prognosis for severe NPDR?
    Within one year 90% chance it will become PDR
  10. What are the criteria for CSME?
    • Retinal thickening within 500um of fovea (1/3 DD)
    • HE within 500um
    • Retinal thickening of at least 1DD within 1 DD of fovea
  11. What stage of hypertensive retinopathy do flame hemes typically present?
    Stage 3
  12. What are the findings in stage 4 hypertensive retinopathy?
    • Bp 140/110+
    • Macular star
    • Papilledema
    • Elsching spots
    • Silver wire
  13. What findings are associated with ocular ischemic syndrome?
    • Gradual vision loss
    • Periorbital pain
    • Amaurosis fugax
    • Unilateral DBH
    • NVD, NVI
  14. What are typical sources of ocular ischemic syndrome?
    • Carotid/ophthalmic artery occlusion
    • GCA
    • HTN
    • DM
    • Cardiac disease
  15. What form of idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasia has the worst prognosis?
    When It is bilateral and acquired
  16. What is coat's disease?
    Unilateral telangiectatic dilated vessels with light bulb appearance
  17. What signs are associated with coat's disease?
    • Unilateral telangiectatic dilated vessels with light bulb appearance
    • Marked HE
    • Intraretinal heme
    • Exudative RD
    • NVG
    • Leukocoria
    • Strab
  18. What part of the retina is last to develop and causes most problems in prematurity?
    Anterior temp
  19. What are the risk factors for wet AMD?
    • Soft confluent drusen
    • Focal hyperpigmentation
    • HTN
    • Smoking
  20. What are other diverse complications of high myopia?
    • Posterior staphylomas
    • Fuch's spots
    • Lacquer cracks
    • Macular holes
  21. What is the most common retinal dystrophy?
  22. What is usher's syndrome
    RP + hearing loss
  23. What is the common triad for RP?
    • Bone-spicule pigmentation
    • Arteriolar attenuation
    • Waxy optic disc pallor
  24. What are typical signs of stargardt's disease?
    • Rapid vision loss
    • Pisciform yellow flecks
    • RPE mottling
    • Beaten bronze macular pattern
    • Bull's eye maculopathy
    • Sat and pepper fundus
  25. How is choroideremia genetically passed on?
    x- linked
  26. what are differential diagnoses for bull's eye maculopathy?
    • Stargardt's
    • Progressive cone dystrophy
    • Chloroquine toxicity
    • Hydroxychloroquine toxicity
    • Thioridazine toxicity
  27. What is the other name for best's disease?
    Vitelliform dystrophy
  28. What electric signals testing is found in Best's disease?
    • Abnormal EOG
    • Normal ERG
  29. Where is lattice degeneration typically found?
    • Bilaterally
    • Temporally and superior
  30. Retinoschisis occurs in what retinal layer?
    • Outer plexiform layer
    • Infro temporal
  31. What diseases cause angioid streaks?
    • PEPSI
    • Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
    • Ehlers-danlos syndrome
    • Paget's disease
    • Sickle-cell disease
    • Idiopathic
  32. What are asteroid hyalosis made of?
    Calcium-phosphate soaps
  33. What are synchysis scintillans made of?
    Golden-brown cholesterol crystals
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retina 2 NBEO.txt
2015-02-24 20:21:37
Retina NBEO Optometry

Retina 2 NBEO Optometry
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