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What retinal cells undergo a graded potential?
- Bipolar cells
- Photoreceptor cells
- Horizontal cells
What does Tay Sach's disease present in the retina?
Cherry Red macula
What do emboli do in the retinal vessels?
Cause CRAO, BRAO
What do thrombi do in the retinal vessels?
cause CRVO, BRVO
What is the most common retinal vascular occlusive disease?
What retinal vascular disorder are Hollenhorst plaques seen?
What is associated with snowflake cataracts?
What is the 4-2-1 rule?
- For severe NPDR
- Severe heme in 4 quadrant
- Venous beading in 2 quadrant
- IRMA in 1 quadrant
What is the prognosis for severe NPDR?
Within one year 90% chance it will become PDR
What are the criteria for CSME?
- Retinal thickening within 500um of fovea (1/3 DD)
- HE within 500um
- Retinal thickening of at least 1DD within 1 DD of fovea
What stage of hypertensive retinopathy do flame hemes typically present?
What are the findings in stage 4 hypertensive retinopathy?
- Bp 140/110+
- Macular star
- Elsching spots
- Silver wire
What findings are associated with ocular ischemic syndrome?
- Gradual vision loss
- Periorbital pain
- Amaurosis fugax
- Unilateral DBH
- NVD, NVI
What are typical sources of ocular ischemic syndrome?
- Carotid/ophthalmic artery occlusion
- Cardiac disease
What form of idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasia has the worst prognosis?
When It is bilateral and acquired
What is coat's disease?
Unilateral telangiectatic dilated vessels with light bulb appearance
What signs are associated with coat's disease?
- Unilateral telangiectatic dilated vessels with light bulb appearance
- Marked HE
- Intraretinal heme
- Exudative RD
What part of the retina is last to develop and causes most problems in prematurity?
What are the risk factors for wet AMD?
- Soft confluent drusen
- Focal hyperpigmentation
What are other diverse complications of high myopia?
- Posterior staphylomas
- Fuch's spots
- Lacquer cracks
- Macular holes
What is the most common retinal dystrophy?
What is usher's syndrome
RP + hearing loss
What is the common triad for RP?
- Bone-spicule pigmentation
- Arteriolar attenuation
- Waxy optic disc pallor
What are typical signs of stargardt's disease?
- Rapid vision loss
- Pisciform yellow flecks
- RPE mottling
- Beaten bronze macular pattern
- Bull's eye maculopathy
- Sat and pepper fundus
How is choroideremia genetically passed on?
what are differential diagnoses for bull's eye maculopathy?
- Progressive cone dystrophy
- Chloroquine toxicity
- Hydroxychloroquine toxicity
- Thioridazine toxicity
What is the other name for best's disease?
What electric signals testing is found in Best's disease?
Where is lattice degeneration typically found?
- Temporally and superior
Retinoschisis occurs in what retinal layer?
- Outer plexiform layer
- Infro temporal
What diseases cause angioid streaks?
- Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
- Ehlers-danlos syndrome
- Paget's disease
- Sickle-cell disease
What are asteroid hyalosis made of?
What are synchysis scintillans made of?
Golden-brown cholesterol crystals