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The upper respiratory tract includes all of these except the?
a) nasal cavities
c) primary bronchi
During swallowing, the larynx is covered by the?
a) soft palate
c) vocal cords
d) thyroid cartilage
the part of the pharynx that is a passageway for air only is the?
The serous fluid between the pleural membranes keeps the membranes together and?
a) exchanges gases
b) creates friction
c) destroys pathogens
d) prevents friction
The respiratory centers in the brain are located in the?
a) pons and cerebral cortex
b) medulla and cerebral cortex
c) hypothalamus and pons
d) medulla and pons
medulla and pons
During inhalation(inspiration), the thoracic cavity is enlarged from top to bottom by contraction of the?
a)external intercostal muscles, which move down
b) diaphragm, which moves up
c) diaphragm, which moves down
d) internal intercostal muscles, which move up
Diaphragm, which moves down
In the alveoli, the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide are?
a) low PO2 and high PCO2
b) high PO2 and low PCO2
c) high PO2 and high PCO2
d) low PO2 and low PCO2
high PO2 and low PCO2
Intrapulmonic pressure is the air pressure within the?
a) bronchial tree and alveoli
b) intrapleural space
c) mouth and nose
d) rib cage and diaphragm
bronchial tree and alveoli
Most oxygen is transported in the blood?
a) on RBC membranes
b) in bood plasma as free oxygen
c) bonded to hemoglobin in RBCs
d) as part of hemoglobin in blood plasma
bonded to hemoglobin in RBCs
internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the?
a) systemic capillaries and body tissues
b) pulmonary capillaries and alveoli
c) alveoli and systemic capillaries
d) pulmonary capillaries and body tissues.
systemic capillaries and body tissues
Most CO2 is transported in the blood?
a) as hydrogen ions in the RBCs
b) as bicarbonate ions in the plasma
c) as CO2 in the plasma
d) as part of hemoglobin in RBCs
as bicarbonate ions in the plasma
the factors that increase the release of O2 from hemoglobin in systemic capillaries include all of these except?
a) high temp
b) low PO2
c) high PO2
d) low temp
the air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful exhalation is called?
a) vital capacity
b) tidal volume
c) residual air
d) leftover expiration
the gas that is the most important chemical regulator of respiration is?
a) O2 because if present in excess it lowers the pH of body fluids
b) CO2 because if present in excess it lowers the pH of body fluids
c) O2 because if present in excess it raises the pH of body fluids.
d) CO2 because if present in excess it raises the pH of body fluids
CO2 because if present in excess it lowers the pH of body fluids
The receptors that detect a decrease in oxygen level of the blood are located in the?
carotid and aortic bodies
if pneumonia decreases the exchange of gases in the lungs, the resulting pH imbalance is called?
a) metabolic acidosis
b) metabolic alkalosis
c) respiratory acidosis
d) respiratory alkalosis
the nasal mucosa has all of these functions except?
a) warming incoming air
b) moistening incoming air
c) increasing the O2 content in the air
d) sweeping mucus and pathogens to the pharynx
increasing the O2 content in the air
the expansibility of the lungs and chest wall is called?
b) inflation potential
c) inhalation potential
to compensate for metabolic acidosis, respiration will?
a) increase to exhale more CO2
b) decrease to exhale for CO2
c) increase to retain more CO2
d) decrease to retain more CO2
increase to exhale more CO2
backup of food from the small intestine to the stomach is prevented by the?
a) lower esophageal sphincter
b) ileocecal valve
c) internal anal sphincter
d) pyloric sphincter
all of the following are accessory organs of digestion except?
b) salivary glands
mechanical digestion includes all of the following except?
b) conversion of starch to maltose
c) emulsification of fat by bile salts
d) contractions of the stomach
conversion of starch to maltose
the function of saliva include all of these except?
c) starch digestion
d) protein digestion
the layer of alimentary tube that is responsible for peristalsis is the?
b) external muscle layer
external muscle layer
the liver synthesizes all of these except?
when food reaches the stomach, secretion of gastric juice is stimulated by the hormone?
bile is stored by the?
bile and pancreatic juices are carried to the duodenum by the?
common bile duct
bicarbonate pancreatic juice is important to neutralize hydrochloric acid that enters the?
the digestion of protein involves all of these except?
a) pepsin from the stomach
b) chemical digestion
c) peptidases from the small intestine
d) amylase from the pancreas
amylase from the pancreas
the capillary networks and lacteals in the villi of the small intestine are important for?
absorption of nutrients
the absorption of amino acids and glucose into the capillary networks of the villi is accomplished by the process of?
stimulus for the defecation relfex is?
stretching of the rectum
the liver stores all of these except?
c) vitamin A and D
Vitamin A and D
The liver is stable to detoxify potentially harmful substance by means of the synthesis of specific?
greater surface area in the small intestine is provided by all of these except?
d) plica circulates
the "brush border" refers to the?
microvilli of the small intestine
function of the enteroendocrine cells of the stomach is the production of
the enteric nervous system is found in all of these organs except the?
c) small intestine
d) large intestine
in the small intestine, the Peyer's patches are?
the lymph nodules
the cells of the liver that phagocytize pathogens are?
b) Kupffer cells
c) both A & B are correct
d) Neither A nor B is correct
both A & B are correct
Within the skull are two nasal cavities, which are separated by the?
the nasal mucosa lining is made of?
in the upper nasal cavities are the receptors for the sense of?
The paranasal sinuses are air cavities that open into the?
In the nasal cavities, this creases surface area.
In the nasal cavities, responds to inhaled vapors.
Lower respiratory tract includes the following and is located?
- lower trachea, lungs (bronchial tubes & alveoli)
- located within the chest cavity.
Function of larynx?
- airway between pharynx and trachea
- other functions is speaking.
The largest, most anterior cartilage of the larynx?
the cartilage that covers the larynx during swallowing?
two folds on either side of the glottis; vibrate to produce speech sounds
the identation of the medial side of each lung where primary bronchus and pulmonary artery/veins enter is called the?
the serous membrane that is on the surface of the lungs is called?
the serous membrane that lines the thoracic cavity is the?
the alveoli of the lungs are made of alveolar type I cells, which are what type of tissue?
simple squamous epithelium
the pulmonary capillaries around the alveoli are made of what type of tissue?
Simple squamous epithelium
Each alveolus is lined with a thin layer of tissue fluid that is important to permit?
diffusion of gases
In alveolar type II cells, This tissue fluid is mixed with pulmonary _____ that decreases the surface tension of the tissue fluid and permits _____ of the alveolus.
Surfactant is produced by?
Alveolar Type II cells.
The movement of air into and out of the lungs is called?
The respiratory muscle which is supplied by the phrenic nerves; contracts, flattens & moves downward is?
The respiratory muscle that pulls the ribs upward and outward?
external intercostal muscle
The respiratory muscle that pulls the ribs downward and inward?
internal intercostal muscle
the pressure of air around us; 760 mmHg at sea level?
the pressure within the potential pleural space; always slightly below atmospheric pressure.
the pressure in the bronchial tree and alveoli; fluctuates below and above atmospheric pressure during breathing.
In one normal inhalation and exhalation
beyond tidal, the deepest inhalation?
Involved in the deepest inhalation followed by the most forceful exhalation
Within the cells, oxygen is bonded to the mineral iron in the protein?
Oxygen is carried in the blood by which cells?
CO2 is reformed when blood reaches?
- diffuses into alveoli and exhaled
Within the brain, the respiratory centers are located in the _____ and _____.
In the medulla, the _____ center impulses that travel to the respiratory muscles causing them to contract.
The _____ center is activated to promote a force exhalation.
the _____ may influence the rate or rhythm of breathing during emotional situations.
The _____ may bring about voluntary changes in breathing.
Fewer H+ ions are formed; CO2 is exhaled more rapidly; Caused by an increase in the rate of respiration.
caused by a decrease in the rate or efficiency of respiration;CO2 accumulates in the body; more H+ ions are formed.
state some specific cause of respiratory acidosis?
severe pulmonary disease; emphysema; pneumonia
state some specific cause of respiratory alkalosis?
name the pair of salivary glands with this location: below the floor of the mouth
name the pair of salivary glands with this location: in front of the ears
name the pair of salivary glands with this location: at the posterior corners of the mandible
The digestive enzyme in saliva is _____, which digests starch to _____ .
the water of _____ is important to dissolved food so that it may be tasted and to moisten a mass of food so that it may be swallowed.
at the junction of the esophagus and the stomach is a circular smooth muscle called the?
lower esophageal sphincter
the _____ is the sac-like portion of the alimentary tube that extends from esophagus to the small intestine.
some digestion does take place in the stomach, which also serves as a _____ for food so that digestion takes place gradually.
the folds of the gastric mucosa that are present when the stomach is empty is called?
the glands of the stomach are called ______, and their secretion is called _____.
gastric pits; gastric juice
the three parts of the small intestine, in order, are the:
Duodenum; jejunum; ileum.
the common bile duct enters which of these 3 parts of the small intestinal parts?
the functional unit of the liver is called a _____, which is made of liver cells and the large capillaries called sinusoids.
between the liver lobules are branches of the _____ artery, the ________ vein, and ______ ducts.
hepatic; portal; bile.
the digestive function of the liver is the production of ______, which contains salts that emulsify fats. this is an aspect of mechanical digstion
bile leaves the liver through the ______ , which joins the _______ of the gallbladder to form the ______.
heptic duct; cystic duct; common bile duct
pancreatic juice is secreted by exocrine glands also called?
large folds of the mucosa and submucosa
small projections of the mucosa
microscopic folds of the cell membrane on the free surface of each columnar cell; also called the brush border
the defecation reflex for the elimination of feces involves which part of the CNS?
the stimulus for defecation is stretching of the _____ as peristalsis of the colon pushes feces into it.
voluntary control of defecation is provided by the ______, which contracts to close to anus.
external anal sphincter
taste becomes less acute; less saliva is produced, greater risk of peridontal disease & tooth loss; peristalsis effectiveness decrease: constipation -> hemorrhoids; indigestion more frequent & greater risk of peptic ulcer; diverticula may form in colon; greater tendency for gallstones.
Aging and the digestive system
respiratory muscles weaken; lung tissue loses elasticity; alveoli are lost as walls deteriorate; cilia of respiratory mucosa deteriorates & alveolar macrophages are not as efficient; more prone to pneumonia; chronic alveolar hypoxia from emphysema or chronic bronchitis may lead to pulmonary hypertension; over works right ventricle of heart; systemic hyper tension leads -> CHF, pulmonary edema; smoking causes all of these things and more....
aging and the respiratory system.