Ch. 15 & 16 SG

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Ch. 15 & 16 SG
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2015-02-15 15:10:01
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Ch. 15 & 16 SG
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  1. The upper respiratory tract includes all of these except the?

    a) nasal cavities
    b) larynx
    c) primary bronchi
    d) nasopharynx
    primary bonchi
  2. During swallowing, the larynx is covered by the?

    a) soft palate
    b) epiglottis
    c) vocal cords
    d) thyroid cartilage
    epiglottis
  3. the part of the pharynx that is a passageway for air only is the?

    a) nasopharynx
    b) oropharynx
    c) laryngopharynx
    d) tracheopharynx
    nasopharynx
  4. The serous fluid between the pleural membranes keeps the membranes together and?

    a) exchanges gases
    b) creates friction
    c) destroys pathogens
    d) prevents friction
    prevents friction
  5. The respiratory centers in the brain are located in the?

    a) pons and cerebral cortex
    b) medulla and cerebral cortex
    c) hypothalamus and pons
    d) medulla and pons
    medulla and pons
  6. During inhalation(inspiration), the thoracic cavity is enlarged from top to bottom by contraction of the?
    a)external intercostal muscles, which move down
    b) diaphragm, which moves up
    c) diaphragm, which moves down
    d) internal intercostal muscles, which move up
    Diaphragm, which moves down
  7. In the alveoli, the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide are?
    a) low PO2 and high PCO2
    b) high PO2 and low PCO2
    c) high PO2 and high PCO2
    d) low PO2 and low PCO2
    high PO2 and low PCO2
  8. Intrapulmonic pressure is the air pressure within the?
    a) bronchial tree and alveoli
    b) intrapleural space
    c) mouth and nose
    d) rib cage and diaphragm
    bronchial tree and alveoli
  9. Most oxygen is transported in the blood?
    a) on RBC membranes
    b) in bood plasma as free oxygen
    c) bonded to hemoglobin in RBCs
    d) as part of hemoglobin in blood plasma
    bonded to hemoglobin in RBCs
  10. internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the?
    a) systemic capillaries and body tissues
    b) pulmonary capillaries and alveoli
    c) alveoli and systemic capillaries
    d) pulmonary capillaries and body tissues.
    systemic capillaries and body tissues
  11. Most CO2 is transported in the blood?
    a) as hydrogen ions in the RBCs
    b) as bicarbonate ions in the plasma
    c) as CO2 in the plasma
    d) as part of hemoglobin in RBCs
    as bicarbonate ions in the plasma
  12. the factors that increase the release of O2 from hemoglobin in systemic capillaries include all of these except?
    a) high temp
    b) low PO2
    c) high PO2
    d) low temp
    low temp
  13. the air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful exhalation is called?
    a) vital capacity
    b) tidal volume
    c) residual air
    d) leftover expiration
    residual air
  14. the gas that is the most important chemical regulator of respiration is?
    a) O2 because if present in excess it lowers the pH of body fluids
    b) CO2 because if present in excess it lowers the pH of body fluids
    c) O2 because if present in excess it raises the pH of body fluids.
    d) CO2 because if present in excess it raises the pH of body fluids
    CO2 because if present in excess it lowers the pH of body fluids
  15. The receptors that detect a decrease in oxygen level of the blood are located in the?
    carotid and aortic bodies
  16. if pneumonia decreases the exchange of gases in the lungs, the resulting pH imbalance is called?
    a) metabolic acidosis
    b) metabolic alkalosis
    c) respiratory acidosis
    d) respiratory alkalosis
    respiratory acidosis
  17. the nasal mucosa has all of these functions except?
    a) warming incoming air
    b) moistening incoming air
    c) increasing the O2 content in the air
    d) sweeping mucus and pathogens to the pharynx
    increasing the O2 content in the air
  18. the expansibility of the lungs and chest wall is called?
    a) stretchiness
    b) inflation potential
    c) inhalation potential
    d) compliance
    compliance
  19. to compensate for metabolic acidosis, respiration will?
    a) increase to exhale more CO2
    b) decrease to exhale for CO2
    c) increase to retain more CO2
    d) decrease to retain more CO2
    increase to exhale more CO2
  20. backup of food from the small intestine to the stomach is prevented by the?
    a) lower esophageal sphincter
    b) ileocecal valve
    c) internal anal sphincter
    d) pyloric sphincter
    pyloric sphincter
  21. all of the following are accessory organs of digestion except?
    a) liver
    b) salivary glands
    c) stomach
    d) pancreas
    stomach
  22. mechanical digestion includes all of the following except?
    a) chewing
    b) conversion of starch to maltose
    c) emulsification of fat by bile salts
    d) contractions of the stomach
    conversion of starch to maltose
  23. the function of saliva include all of these except?
    a) taste
    b) swallowing
    c) starch digestion
    d) protein digestion
    protein digestion
  24. the layer of alimentary tube that is responsible for peristalsis is the?
    a) serosa
    b) external muscle layer
    c) submucosa
    d) mucosa
    external muscle layer
  25. the liver synthesizes all of these except?
    a) hemoglobin
    b) fibrinogen
    c) albumin
    d) lipoproteins
    hemoglobin
  26. when food reaches the stomach, secretion of gastric juice is stimulated by the hormone?
    gastrin
  27. bile is stored by the?
    gallbladder
  28. bile and pancreatic juices are carried to the duodenum by the?
    common bile duct
  29. bicarbonate pancreatic juice is important to neutralize hydrochloric acid that enters the?
    duodenum
  30. the digestion of protein involves all of these except?
    a) pepsin from the stomach
    b) chemical digestion
    c) peptidases from the small intestine
    d) amylase from the pancreas
    amylase from the pancreas
  31. the capillary networks and lacteals in the villi of the small intestine are important for?
    absorption of nutrients
  32. the absorption of amino acids and glucose into the capillary networks of the villi is accomplished by the process of?
    active transport
  33. stimulus for the defecation relfex is?
    stretching of the rectum
  34. the liver stores all of these except?
    a) iron
    b) glycogen
    c) vitamin A and D
    d) fat
    Vitamin A and D
  35. The liver is stable to detoxify potentially harmful substance by means of the synthesis of specific?
    enzymes
  36. greater surface area in the small intestine is provided by all of these except?
    a) villi
    b) microvilli
    c) rugae
    d) plica circulates
    rugae
  37. the "brush border" refers to the?
    microvilli of the small intestine
  38. function of the enteroendocrine cells of the stomach is the production of
    gastrin
  39. the enteric nervous system is found in all of these organs except the?
    a) stomach
    b) liver
    c) small intestine
    d) large intestine
    liver
  40. in the small intestine, the Peyer's patches are?
    the lymph nodules
  41. the cells of the liver that phagocytize pathogens are?
    a) macrophages
    b) Kupffer cells
    c) both A & B are correct
    d) Neither A nor B is correct
    both A & B are correct
  42. Within the skull are two nasal cavities, which are separated by the?
    nasal septum
  43. the nasal mucosa lining is made of?
    ciliated epthelium
  44. in the upper nasal cavities are the receptors for the sense of?
    smell
  45. The paranasal sinuses are air cavities that open into the?
    nasal cavities
  46. In the nasal cavities, this creases surface area.
    conchae
  47. In the nasal cavities, responds to inhaled vapors.
    olfactory receptors.
  48. Lower respiratory tract includes the following and is located?
    • lower trachea, lungs (bronchial tubes & alveoli)
    • located within the chest cavity.
  49. Function of larynx?
    • airway between pharynx and trachea
    • other functions is speaking.
  50. The largest, most anterior cartilage of the larynx?
    thyroid cartilage
  51. the cartilage that covers the larynx during swallowing?
    epiglottis
  52. two folds on either side of the glottis; vibrate to produce speech sounds
    vocal cords
  53. the identation of the medial side of each lung where primary bronchus and pulmonary artery/veins enter is called the?
    Hilus
  54. the serous membrane that is on the surface of the lungs is called?
    Visceral pleura
  55. the serous membrane that lines the thoracic cavity is the?
    parietal pleura
  56. the alveoli of the lungs are made of alveolar type I cells, which are what type of tissue?
    simple squamous epithelium
  57. the pulmonary capillaries around the alveoli are made of what type of tissue?
    Simple squamous epithelium
  58. Each alveolus is lined with a thin layer of tissue fluid that is important to permit?
    diffusion of gases
  59. In alveolar type II cells, This tissue fluid is mixed with pulmonary _____ that decreases the surface tension of the tissue fluid and permits _____ of the alveolus.
    surfactant; inflation
  60. Surfactant is produced by?
    Alveolar Type II cells.
  61. The movement of air into and out of the lungs is called?
    Ventilation
  62. The respiratory muscle which is supplied by the phrenic nerves; contracts, flattens & moves downward is?
    Diaphragm
  63. The respiratory muscle that pulls the ribs upward and outward?
    external intercostal muscle
  64. The respiratory muscle that pulls the ribs downward and inward?
    internal intercostal muscle
  65. the pressure of air around us; 760 mmHg at sea level?
    atmospheric pressure
  66. the pressure within the potential pleural space; always slightly below atmospheric pressure.
    intrapleural pressure
  67. the pressure in the bronchial tree and alveoli; fluctuates below and above atmospheric pressure during breathing.
    intrapulmonic pressure.
  68. In one normal inhalation and exhalation
    tidal volume
  69. beyond tidal, the deepest inhalation?
    inspiration reserve
  70. Involved in the deepest inhalation followed by the most forceful exhalation
    Vital Capacity
  71. Within the cells, oxygen is bonded to the mineral iron in the protein?
    hemoglobin
  72. Oxygen is carried in the blood by which cells?
    RBC
  73. CO2 is reformed when blood reaches?
    • Lungs
    • diffuses into alveoli and exhaled
  74. Within the brain, the respiratory centers are located in the _____ and _____.
    Medulla; Pons
  75. In the medulla, the _____ center impulses that travel to the respiratory muscles causing them to contract.
    Inspiration
  76. The _____ center is activated to promote a force exhalation.
    expiration
  77. the _____ may influence the rate or rhythm of breathing during emotional situations.
    hypothalamus
  78. The _____ may bring about voluntary changes in breathing.
    Cerebral cortex
  79. Fewer H+ ions are formed; CO2 is exhaled more rapidly; Caused by an increase in the rate of respiration.
    respiratory alkalosis
  80. caused by a decrease in the rate or efficiency of respiration;CO2 accumulates in the body; more H+ ions are formed.
    respiratory acidosis
  81. state some specific cause of respiratory acidosis?
    severe pulmonary disease; emphysema; pneumonia
  82. state some specific cause of respiratory alkalosis?
    prolonged hyperventilation
  83. name the pair of salivary glands with this location: below the floor of the mouth
    sublingual
  84. name the pair of salivary glands with this location: in front of the ears
    parotid
  85. name the pair of salivary glands with this location: at the posterior corners of the mandible
    submandibular
  86. The digestive enzyme in saliva is _____, which digests starch to _____ .
    amylase; maltose
  87. the water of _____ is important to dissolved food so that it may be tasted and to moisten a mass of food so that it may be swallowed.
    saliva
  88. at the junction of the esophagus and the stomach is a circular smooth muscle called the?
    lower esophageal sphincter
  89. the _____ is the sac-like portion of the alimentary tube that extends from esophagus to the small intestine.
    stomach
  90. some digestion does take place in the stomach, which also serves as a _____ for food so that digestion takes place gradually.
    reservoir
  91. the folds of the gastric mucosa that are present when the stomach is empty is called?
    rugae
  92. the glands of the stomach are called ______, and their secretion is called _____.
    gastric pits; gastric juice
  93. the three parts of the small intestine, in order, are the:
    Duodenum; jejunum; ileum.
  94. the common bile duct enters which of these 3 parts of the small intestinal parts?
    duodenum
  95. the functional unit of the liver is called a _____, which is made of liver cells and the large capillaries called sinusoids.
    liver lobule
  96. between the liver lobules are branches of the _____ artery, the ________ vein, and ______ ducts.
    hepatic; portal; bile.
  97. the digestive function of the liver is the production of ______, which contains salts that emulsify fats. this is an aspect of mechanical digstion
    biles
  98. bile leaves the liver through the ______ , which joins the _______ of the gallbladder to form the ______.
    heptic duct; cystic duct; common bile duct
  99. pancreatic juice is secreted by exocrine glands also called?
    Acini
  100. plica circulares
    large folds of the mucosa and submucosa
  101. small projections of the mucosa
    villi
  102. microscopic folds of the cell membrane on the free surface of each columnar cell; also called the brush border
    microvilli
  103. the defecation reflex for the elimination of feces involves which part of the CNS?
    Spinal cord.
  104. the stimulus for defecation is stretching of the _____ as peristalsis of the colon pushes feces into it.
    rectum
  105. voluntary control of defecation is provided by the ______, which contracts to close to anus.
    external anal sphincter
  106. taste becomes less acute; less saliva is produced, greater risk of peridontal disease & tooth loss; peristalsis effectiveness decrease: constipation -> hemorrhoids; indigestion more frequent & greater risk of peptic ulcer; diverticula may form in colon; greater tendency for gallstones.
    Aging and the digestive system
  107. respiratory muscles weaken; lung tissue loses elasticity; alveoli are lost as walls deteriorate; cilia of respiratory mucosa deteriorates & alveolar macrophages are not as efficient; more prone to pneumonia; chronic alveolar hypoxia from emphysema or chronic bronchitis may lead to pulmonary hypertension; over works right ventricle of heart; systemic hyper tension leads -> CHF, pulmonary edema; smoking causes all of these things and more....
    aging and the respiratory system.

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