Bio Exam 1

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jetski_chic07
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Bio Exam 1
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2015-02-18 16:57:07
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bio
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  1. science
    • method of inquiry that provides a rational way to discover truths about the universe
    • body of knowledge
    • process of learning
  2. biology
    study of life
  3. scientific method
    process that generates scientific knowledge
  4. hypothesis
    educated guess about an observation
  5. theory
    • set of principles supported by evidence that explains some aspect of nature
    • predictive power
  6. fact
    statement known to be true
  7. independent variables
    manipulated
  8. dependent variables
    response
  9. controls
    not manipulated, used as comparison
  10. graphs
    • show relative change in values of dependent values in relation to independent variable
    • indep = x
    • dep = y
  11. tables
    • data presented in series of columns
    • indep = first/left column
    • dep = right columns
  12. domain
    • most inclusive
    • life has 3 domains
  13. kingdom
    • categories within domains
    • second level, under domain
    • less inclusive than domain
  14. genus
    step above species
  15. species
    least inclusive (most specific)
  16. dichotomous key
    • tool that enables user to identity unknown organisms using their characteristics
    • set of choices
  17. Be familiar with all the steps of the scientific method.
    • Observation
    • develop questions
    • generate testable hypothesis
    • experiment
    • hypothesis proved or disproved
    • conclusion
  18. Law
    principal that appears to be without exceptions at the time it's made
  19. Understand what distinguishes living from non-living things, including the properties common to all life forms
    • 1. made of 1 or more cells
    • 2. obtain energy from enviro
    • 3. responds to stimuli
    • 4. maintain content internal enviro
    • 5. grow & reproduce
    • 6. evolve & adapt
  20. 4 Kingdoms of Eukarya
    • protists
    • fungi
    • plants
    • animals
  21. Domain Eukarya
    • eukaryotic
    • single or multi cell
    • 4 kingdoms
    • producers & consumers
  22. Domain Archaea
    • prokaryotic
    • single cell
    • producers & consumers
    • extremists
    • crenarchaea
  23. Domain Bacteria
    • prokaryotic
    • single cell
    • producers & consumers
    • E coli, salmonella
  24. Is it possible for one individual to not meet ALL the characteristics that define Life and still be considered alive? Name at least two examples.
    • Individual living things do not have to meet all characteristics
    • honeybees
    • ants
    • humans
  25. Be able to describe the different levels of the organization of life and name examples of each level.
    • atoms: basic unit of matter, protons & neutrons orbited by electrons (carbon, hydrogen)
    • molecules: 2+ atoms (water, glucose)
    • organelles: internal structures found inside cells, made of molecules (mitochondria, nucleus)
    • cells: basic unit of life (blood, muscle, neuron)
    • tissue: cells that do the same job combined together (nervous, muscle)
    • organs: multiple tissues working together for common goal (heart, skin, muscle)
    • organ system: multiple organs working together for common goal (cardiovascular, respiratory)
    • organism: multiple organ systems working together for common goal (seal, human, tree)
  26. element
    • Substance that cannot be reduced any further through chemical processes
    • atoms with same atomic number
  27. valence electrons
    outermost electron shell and electrons
  28. valence shells
    space where electrons orbit around nucleus
  29. ion
    • element that has lost/gained electrons
    • different number of electrons than protons
  30. isotope
    different forms of elements depending on the number of neutrons
  31. chemical bond
    attraction between electrons of incomplete valence shells
  32. CHNOPS
    • elements in life
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Phosphorous
    • Sulfur
  33. organic molecules
    C & H together
  34. polar molecules
    molecule has a sidedness of charges
  35. non-polar molecule
    • no sidedness of charges
    • chargers are symmetric
  36. hydrophilic
    • polar molecules
    • magnets towards selves and water
  37. hydrophobic
    • non-polar molecules
    • attracted to each other but not water
  38. pH
    concentration of H+ in water solution
  39. acid
    substance that donates H+ when placed in water
  40. base
    substance that takes H+ when placed in water
  41. what is the difference between hydrogen atom and tritium atom?
    • Hydrogen = 1 proton, no neutron
    • Trtium = 1 proton, 2 neutron (isotope of H)
  42. Inorganic molecules
    C and H not together in molecule
  43. What are the three types of chemical bonds?
    • Ionic
    • Covalent - strongest
    • Hydrogen - weakest
  44. Unique properties of water
    • 1. cohesive
    • 2. adhesive
    • 3. ice is less dense
    • 4. moderates temperature
    • 5. universal solvent
    • 6. organize non-polar molecules
    • 7. forms ions H+ and OH-
  45. Describe the central roles of carbon and water in life
    • Carbon has 4 valence electrons, can make 4 bonds simultaneously, form long chains and rings, single & double & triple bonds, form cores for biomolecules
    • Water provides medium for molecules to move around, polar, unique properties
  46. biomolecule
    • molecules made and used by living things
    • organic molecules with carbons atoms linked together with other atoms
  47. monomer
    building blocks or small units that build macromolecules
  48. polymer
    macromolecule built by a specific monomer
  49. carbohydrate
    • sugars - sucrose, lactose
    • CHO
    • monomer: monosaccharide
    • polymer: polysaccharide 
    • function: energy, storage, structure
  50. lipid
    • fats, oils, cholesterol
    • CHO(P)
    • no monomer/polymer
    • function: energy, support, signaling
    • hydrophobic
  51. nucleic acid
    • genetic info for all living things
    • CHNOP
    • monomer: nucleotide
    • polymer: polynucleotides
    • function: store/deliver genetic info, power cells
    • ATP, DNA, RNA
  52. protein
    • perform different cellular functions
    • CHONS
    • monomer: amino acid
    • polymer: polypeptide
    • function: support, defense, enzymes, etc
    • Insulin, actin, lactase
  53. ATP
    • energy from mitochondria
    • nucleotide
    • unstable 3rd phosphate group
  54. Know the parts of the cell and their functions
    • cell membrane: barrier, separates and controls outside
    • cytoplasm: fluid floor, contains organelles
    • nucleus: contains DNA
    • endoplasmic reticulum: RER for proteins, SER for carbs & lipids
    • golgi apparatus: receive, modify, distribute molecules from ER
    • mitochondria: generate ATP from stored glucose
    • lysosomes: recycle biomolecules & organelles
    • cytoskeleton: structure, transport, movement
    • ribosomes: read info on RNA to make proteins
  55. Know the common characteristics amongst all cells
    • 1. Use DNA as info center
    • 2. Use protein as workhorse
    • 3. have cell membrane barrier
    • 4. have cytoplasm floor
    • 5. produce & use ATP as energy 
    • 6. have ribosomes to make proteins
  56. Know the major differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    • Shape & location of DNA: prokaryotes have single loop loose, eukaryotes have many strands inside nucleus
    • Size: prokaryote much smaller (1um) than eukaryote (100um)
    • Organelles: prokaryotes do not have, eukaryotes have several
  57. How are plant cells similar (and different) than animal cells?
    • No lysosomes in plant cells
    • Central vacuole: storage & water pressure/balance, recycling
    • Chloroplasts: food production, photosynthesis
    • Cell wall: made of cellulose, protection, structure, limit water absorption
  58. How proteins are made
    • Info transcribed from DNA to mRNA
    • exits nucleus
    • ribosome translates mRNA into protein
    • protein taken to ER
    • then taken to golgi & modified, distributed
  59. Prokaryotic cell structure
    • Cytoplasm
    • nucleoid (DNA molecule)
    • plasma membrane
    • cell wall (not cellulose like plants)
    • ribosomes (free floating)
  60. plasma membrane
    • skin that encases cell
    • forms physical barrier between cell & surroundings
  61. phospholipid bilayer
    • main component
    • 2 layers of phospholipids with tails inside and heads pointing out towards water
  62. simple diffusion
    • movement of molecules from higher to lower concentration with gradient
    • no protein or help needed
    • small, non-polar
    • gas
  63. facilitated diffusion
    • movement of molecules from higher to lower concentration with gradient
    • needs help from protein
    • larger, polar molecules
    • sugars, ions
  64. osmosis
    • movement of water from lower solute concentration to higher solute concentration
    • lots of water to less water
    • water wants to dilute high concentration
  65. passive transport
    • movement with concentration gradient without using energy
    • high to low
  66. active transport
    movement against concentration gradient with help of energy
  67. exocytosis
    movement from inside the cell to outside
  68. endocytosis
    movement from outside the cell to inside
  69. cell membrane cholesterol
    • OH group sticks out of membrane
    • determines optimum fluidity of membrane
    • fills gaps from unsaturated fatty acids
    • too much cholesterol = too rigid
  70. cell membrane proteins
    • integral or peripheral
    • transporters
    • enzymes
    • cell surface receptors
    • cell surface identity makers
    • cell to cell adhesion proteins
    • attach to cytoskeleton
  71. glycocalyx
    • sugar coating of polysaccharides outside membrane
    • binding site for signaling molecules
    • lubrication
    • adhesion
  72. Be able to describe all 4 components of the plasma membrane
    • 1. phospholipid bilayer
    • 2. cholesterol
    • 3. proteins
    • 4. glycocalyx
  73. What are the 3 major functions of the plasma membrane?
    • 1. communication
    • 2. barrier
    • 3. regulate transport
  74. Briefly explain how is the phospholipid bilayer is formed in an aqueous (water) solution, in a non-polar (oil) solution and in a solution with both oil and water
    • heads face water with tails inward
    • tails face water with heads inward
    • heads face water while tails face oil
  75. Be able to describe all forms of transport across the plasma membrane
    • Osmosis
    • active transport
    • simple diffusion
    • facilitated diffusion
    • exocytosis
    • endocytosis

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