The upper respiratory passageways - structural and functional considerations
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Describe the concept of aerodynamic reach in the dog
When a dog breathes in it can tell which nostril an odour arrived in because each nostril's aerodynamic reach is so small. When a dog breathes out the expired air blows out the side slits in such a way as to augment the sampling of new odours
What is the function of respiratory/olfactory pathways within the nasal cavity?
- Respiratory - 'air conditioning' i.e. warming, cleansing, moistening air
- Olfactory - sense of smell
What type of epithelium lines all the structures of the nasal cavity?
Psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells, or respiratory epithelium
Which structures produce the mucous sheet in which particulate matter is trapped?
Goblet cells and sub-mucosal glands
Which direction is mucus moved towards and why?
Mucus is wafted towards the pharynx for it to be swallowed or expectorated
What is the function of serous glands within the nasal cavity?
Moisten inhaled air
What is a healthy ratio of ciliated cells to goblet cells in respiratory epithelium?
What type of neurones are found in olfactory epithelium?
What is the function of a) bowman's glands b) supporting cells c) basal cells in olfactory epithelium?
- a) secretion solubilises incoming odorants
- b) metabolic and physical support to olfactory cells
- c) stem cells
What is the vomeronasal organ?
It is a special olfactory mucosa located in the ventral nasal meatus either side of the nasal septum
What is the function of the vomeronasal organ?
Chemoreception of liquid-borne compounds of low volatility
Neurosensory cells from the vomeronasal gland project into which area of the brain?
What behaviour do animals with a prominent vomeronasal organ show when inhaling odourants?
True or false: horses are obligate nasal breathers?
Give examples of ways horses can increase their respiratory effort
- Dilation of nostrils
- Constriction of blood vessels in nasal cavity
- Glottis abduction in the larynx
- Muscles of respiration can be used to increase the amount of air drawn in
What shape are the nostrils in a normal resting horse?
Which nerve innervates the nostril region in horses?
True or false: the nasal vestibule directly communicates with the nasal cavity in horses?
What is the name of the blind ending cutaneous pouch found in the nasal vestibule of horses?
The nasal diverticulum (false nostril)
What is the clinical significance of the nasal diverticulum in horses?
Passage of a stomach tube must be passed medial then ventral to avoid epistaxsis. This area can also get sebaceous cysts.
Where are the dorsal and ventral conchal sinuses located?
About 4-5th cheek teeth
Do small ruminants have a philtrum?
True or false: the skin of the nose in small ruminants is a-glandular?
False - it is glandular
Do cows have a philtrum?
Which bone is present in the nose of a pig? What is its function?
Rostral bone - it has a strengthening function to allow pigs to root
What structure partially divides the nasopharynx in ruminants?
The pharyngeal septum
What structure must be taken into consideration when trying to stomach tube pigs?
The pharyngeal diverticulum
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