psychopathology ch. 3

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psychopathology ch. 3
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2015-02-15 17:09:14
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psychopathology
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psychopathology
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psychopathology
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  1. cognitive content
    referring to the actual content of the cognitive structures stored in memory
  2. cognitive products
    term to depict the results of the combined cognitive structures, cognitive content, cognitive processes & interaction with actual events
  3. cognitive processes
    term referring to how people perceive & interpret experience
  4. cell body
    a multi functioning part of neuron containing the nucleus
  5. cognitive behavioral perspective
    an approach to treatment that is based on a theoretical perspective that considers behavioral events, cognitive processes, & their interactions
  6. classical conditioning
    classical conditioning occurs when a CS is paired with another stimulus that does elicit the desired response. when this response is elicited by the conditioned stimulus alone, it is called a conditioned response
  7. child abuse
    any act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation, or an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm
  8. cognitive distortions
    inaccurate thought processes that are dysfunctional. an example is a depressed persons believing that he or she is incompetent even though others do not hold this view
  9. cognitive deficiencies
    term referring to the lack of thinking. ex: lack or forethought and planning by an impulsive child
  10. chromosomes
    threadlike structure in the cell nucleus that contains the genetic code. 23 pairs of chromosomes in human cells
  11. discrimination
    fundamental operant conditioning process when a stimulus comes to signal that a certain response is likely to be followed by a particular consequence
  12. dominant
    a gene thats transmission is only needed by one parents for its display of traits associated with it to appear
  13. DNA
    deoxyribonucleic acid; chemical carrier of the genetic code, found in the chromosomes & composed of sugar, phosphates, & nucleotides (carry the hereditary info)
  14. dendrites
    part of the neuron responsible for receiving electrical impulses from other neurons
  15. endocrine system
    collection of glands intricately involved in bodily functions through the release of hormones
  16. extinction
    fundamental operant conditioning process which there is a weakening of a learned response, occurs when reinforcement that traditionally follows the response is removed
  17. epigenetics
    modification of the genome that helps regulate gene function without changing the genetic code.
  18. fetal alcohol syndrome
    adverse consequence to development instigated by prenatal exposure to alcohol
  19. forebrain
    division of the brain which consists of the two cerebral hemispheres
  20. geneenvironment interaction (GxE)
    differential sensitivity to experience due to differences in genotype.
  21. genotype
    the complement of genes that a person carries the genetic endowment
  22. genetic code
    sequence in which four nucleotides (Adenine, Thymine, Guanine & Cytosine) appear in particular regions of a gene
  23. genes
    units of the chromosome that carries the genetic code
  24. genome-wide linkage
    method to help identify genes associated with a disorder or trait that is found in families. the genomes of family members are searched for variations in DNA and comparison is made between members displaying or not displaying the disorder
  25. generalization
    a fundamental operant conditioning process when a response is made to a new stimulus that is different from but similar to, the stimulus present during learning
  26. genome-wide association
    method to help identify genes associated with a disorder or trait. the genome is searched for small variations in DNA that occur more often in persons with a disorder than those without the disorder. especially appropriate for complex disorders
  27. geneenvironment correlation (GE)
    correlation indicating the presence of genetic differences in exposure to environments. genetic influences play a role in deterring the experiences a person has.
  28. hindbrain
    division of the brain which includes the pons, medulla, & the cerebellum
  29. heritability
    degree to which genetic influences account for variations in an attribute among individuals in a population
  30. linkage analysis
    study to reveal the location of defective genes (the specific chromosome & the place on the chromosome) in molecular genetics
  31. midbrain
    division of the brain which contains fibers that connect the hindbrain & the upper brain region
  32. myelin
    white substance that coats neurons increasing the efficiency of communication in the brain
  33. maltreatment
    referring to both abuse & neglect, divided into 4 standard categories: physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect & emotional abuse
  34. neurons
    multi functioning cells specialized to chemically transmit impulses within the nervous system & to and from other body parts
  35. non shared environmental influences
    environmental influences on an attribute that are experienced by one family member, but not other members
  36. neurotransmitters
    specialize packets of chemicals which are released when an electrical impulse has traveled down an axon, they cross the synaptic gap to be taken up by receiving neurons
  37. negative reinforcement
    a fundamental operant conditioning process by which a stimulus is withdrawn contingent on a response, thereby increasing the frequency of that response
  38. operant learning
    learning in which responses are acquired, maintained, or eliminated as the result of consequences and other learning processes
  39. observational learning
    learning that occurs through viewing the behavior of others. modeled behavior can be presented in live or symbolic form
  40. positive reinforcement
    a fundamental operant conditioning process by which a stimulus is presented followed by a positive response, thereby increasing the frequency of that response
  41. punishment
    a fundamental operant conditioning processes where a response is followed by an unpleasant stimulus or the removal of a pleasant stimulus, thereby decreasing the frequency of that response
  42. peripheral nervous system
    all nerves outside of the central nervous system; comprised of the two subsystems (somatic & autonomic system)
  43. proband
    designated individual whose relatives are assessed to determine whether an attribute occurs in other members of the individuals family.
  44. pruning
    a mechanism of the brain where unneeded cells & connections are eliminated
  45. plasticity
    the flexibility of the brain to recover from damage
  46. parenting styles
    various ways that parents deal with and manage their children; authoritative, permissive & neglectful
  47. phenotype
    observable attributes
  48. quantitative trait loci (QTL)
    inheritance of characteristic that varies in degree & can be associated with the interactions of two or more genes
  49. quantitative genetic methods
    various approaches to studying multiple gene influence. family studies, twin studies & adoption studies
  50. recessive
    gene thats transmission is needed by both parents for its display of traits associated with it to appear
  51. shared environmental influences
    environmental influences on an attribute that are experienced by two or more family members
  52. synapse
    small gap between neuron cells; also known as the synaptic gap or cleft
  53. shaping
    fundamental operant conditioning process that rewards a desired behavior that is not in an individuals repertoire but similar to the desired response, slowly increasing the outcomes to the desired behavior
  54. teratogens
    any agent which can cause birth defects or abnormal development of an embryo or fetus
  55. translation
    conversion of RNA code into proteins
  56. transcription
    synthesis of messenger RNA to carry information to other parts of the cell
  57. axon
    long projecting structure of a neuron by which electrical impulses travel away from the cell body to other neurons
  58. association analysis
    study of particular genes & the association of that gene on trait or disorders in a population
  59. acculturation
    modifications in culture resulting from cultures coming into contact with each other
  60. behavior genetics
    study of genetic influences on individual differences in behavior
  61. cognitive structures
    schema for representing information stored in memory. constructed over time from experience, they screen new experiences and can trigger other cognitive operations
  62. central nervous system
    combination of the brain & spinal cord

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