Respiratory System

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Respiratory System
2015-02-15 19:46:59
Anatomy Physiology

Quiz of 2/18/15
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  1. Function of respiratory system
    • respiration- supplying oxygen to the body
    • removing Co2 from the body
  2. Four processes that respiration involves
    • 1. Pulmonary Ventilation
    • 2. External Respiration
    • 3. Transport of Respiratory Gasses
    • 4. Internal Respiration
  3. Pulmonary Ventilation
    breathing- moving air in and out of the lungs
  4. External Respiration
    • gas exchange at the lungs
    • in the lungs, the o2 in the air goes into the blood and the CO2 in the blood goes into the air
  5. Transport of respiratory gasses
    • transported in the blood
    • o2 brought from the blood in the lungs to the tissues, and Co2 from the tissues tot he blood in the lungs
  6. Internal Respiration
    • gas exchange at the tissues 
    • O2 in the blood goes into the tissues and co2 in tissues goes into the blood
  7. Cellular respiration
    • the use of O2 by the cells and the production of Co2 by the cells
    • O2 used in metabolism- needed to produce the maximum amount of ATP and heat when you catabolize nutrients for energy
  8. Organization of the Respiratory system
    • 1. conduction zone
    • 2. respiratory zone
  9. conducting zone
    • structures that serve as a passage way for the air 
    • they cleanse, warm and moisten the air
    • passage ways: nose-> nasal cavity-> pharynx (throat)-> larynx (voice box)-> trachea (windpipe)-> bronchi + its branchex
  10. Respiratory Zone
    • where gas exchange occurs in the lungs
    • respiratory bronchioles (branch off from bronchi)-> alveolar ducts-> alveoli (air sacs)- it is here that you have gas exchange with the blood
    • clusters of alveoli close to capilaries
  11. Organs of the Respiratory System
    • Nose
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Lungs
  12. Nose
    • important in smell, and influences the quality of our speech
    • this along with all the other passageways are lined with ciliated mucous membrane
  13. Pharynx
    • uvula- an extension of the soft pallet in the back of the mouth
    • when you swallow it may prevent food from going up into the nasal cavity
    • parts: nasopharynx, oropharynx, larngopharynx
  14. nasopharynx
    connects to the nose and the auditory tube
  15. oropharynx
    • connects to the mouth
    • a passage way for air and food but not as important
  16. laryngopharynx
    • most critical passageway for air and food
    • here you have to determine that air goes down the larynx and the food goes down the esophagus
  17. Larynx
    • contains vocal cords- create speech by intermittent release of expired air and opening and closing of glottis
    • change in tension/length of vocal cords alter sound: apart- no sound, muslces together- sound
    • regulated by vagus nerve
    • contains epiglottis
  18. Epiglottis
    • flap at the top of the larynx that covers the glottis (the opening between the vocal cords)
    • when you swallow, the flap goes over the larynx so food will go down the esophagus
  19. Trachea
    • Tube with C-shaped rings of cartilage keep open passageway
    • smoking destroys cilia
  20. Bronchi and Bronchial Tree
    • primary to secondary to tertiary bronchi to bronchioles
    • C-shaped cartilage rings go to complete cartilage rings then just smooth muscle
    • sphincter muscle at base of bronchioles regulates amount of air reaching alveoli
  21. Cells of respiratory system
    • Type I cells
    • Type 2 Cells
    • Alveolar pores
    • Macrophages
  22. Type 1 cells
    • most predominant
    • single layer squamous epithelium (1 cell thick)
    • major part of alveolar wall- allows gas diffusion
  23. Type II cells
    secrete surfactant coating on alveolar surface- phospholipid prevents alveoli from collapse on exhalation
  24. Alveolar pores
    connect adjacent alveoli- equalize pressure, allow air flow
  25. macrophages
    phagocytosis of foreign material and cells in air
  26. Structure of lungs
    • right: 3 lobes
    • left: 2 lobes 
    • in pleural cavities in chest
    • covered by pleura - pleural membrane (surrounds lungs): 2 layers
  27. pleural membrane (and 2 layers)
    • visceral layer on lungs
    • parietal layer lining throacic cavity
    • pleural fluid in pleural space between the layers lubricates and prevents lung collapse
  28. mechanics of breathing
    air moves down pressure gradient- from area of higher pressure to area of lower pressure
  29. relevant pressure
    • 1. atmospheric pressure (Patm): pressure exerted by air (gasses) surrounding body; does not change unless change in altitude (760 mmHg at sea level)
    • 2. Intrapulmonary pressure (Ppul): pressure in alveoli within lung; reflecting of the pressure inside the chest
    • 3. Intrapleural Pressure (Pip): pressure in pleural cavity, always slightly less than Ppul; keeps air spaces open preventing collapse
  30. Pulmonary Ventilation process
    • breathing
    • inspiration: inhalation
    • expiration: exhalation
    • related to volume changes in thoracic cavity- change in volume will change pressure
    • we change the volume than the pressure by inhaling then pressure gradient governs air flow
  31. Inspiration (volume and pressure)
    • enlarge chest causing less pressure in lungs (Patm>Ppul) causing air to flow from out in the atmosphere into the lungs due to contraction of inspiratory muscles
    • vise versa- when Ppul>Patm air flows out of the lungs
  32. Inspiratory muscles
    • 1. Diaphragm: regulated by phrenic nerve; muscular membrane separating thoracic and abdominal cavities
    • 2. Intercostal Muscles: regulated by intercostal nerves
  33. Boyle's law
    • pressure varies inversley with volume
    • bigger volume=less pressure
    • smaller volume=bigger pressure
    • the bigger the volume, the less pressure
  34. Expiration (pressure)
    • relax inspiratory muscles, smaller chest
    • more pressure Ppul>Patm
    • air flows from lungs to outside body (passive process in quiet breathing)
  35. Forced expiration
    (forcing air out) active contraction of abdominal wall muscles (obliques), increases the intra-abdominal pressure to help force more air out
  36. Medulla Respiratory Centers
    • control inspiration and expiration
    • Ventral Respiratory group
    • Dorsal Respiratory group
    • these centers communicate back and forth
  37. Ventral respiratory group
    • regulates phrenic nerve and thus diaphragm 
    • integrates intercostal nerves and thus intercostal muscles
  38. Dorsal respiratory group
    • makes sure you exhale after you inhale and you dont do both at the same time
    • integrates input from peripheral (not in the brain) stretch receptors (sense if lungs have expanded or not) which surrounding lungs in thoracic cavity
    • integrates input from chemoreceptors (sensing high Co2)
  39. When does the respiratory system develop in pregnancy?
  40. Pontine respiratory centers
    • in pons
    • sends info to ventral group in medulla and modifies breathing if you need to change rythem (talking, sleeping, etc)
  41. factors affecting rate and depth of breathing
    • chemoreceptors in medulla and aortic arch and carotid sinus sense increased CO2 (most important thing that regulates your breathing), drop in pH (from carbonic acid) and very big drop in O2 in arterial blood
    • Input from aortic and carotid receptors sent to medulla via vagus and glossopharangeal nerves
    • causes increased rate and depth of breathing
  42. where is CO2 measured
    directly in the medulla and in chemoreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid
  43. what happens when you hold your breath
    Co2 builds up in blood (more sensitive to this than less o2)
  44. Higher Brain centers
    • hypothalamus and other parts of limbic system mediate how emotions and pain can affect breathing by sending impulses to brainstem respiratory centers
    • Hypothalaums temp center: influences breathing- increased temp increases rxn rates increasing respiratory rate
    • Cerebral Cortex: voluntary motor control over breathing- can influence, but increased co2 overrides it (medulla overrides voluntary control)
  45. irritants of respiratory system
    vagus nerve regulates coughing and sneezing
  46. Inflation Reflex
    • also called Hering-Breuer Reflex
    • protection from over inflatting lungs
    • stretch receptors in visceral pleura and air passageways sense increased stretch
    • Vagus nerve sends info to medulla to inhibit inspiration and allow expiration
  47. Adaptations to high altitudes
    • at high altitude there is low atm pressure and O2 availability
    • immediate compensation and gradual acclimation occur
  48. immediate compensation
    increased rate and depth of breathing and increased cardaic output
  49. Gradual acclimation
    • increased RBCs and hemoglobin due to hormone erythropoeitin
    • increased release of O2 from hemoglobin to tissues
    • increased vascularization of tissues
  50. What happens in states of growth
    • increased efficiency of O2 transport and release to tissues
    • in pregnancy: mother- increased efficiency of iron absorption from food; fetal hemoglobin has a high affinity for O2
  51. Nervous control of speech
    • vagus nerve controls larynx
    • hypoglossal nerve controls tongue
    • Brain: Broca's area controls speech; Wernicke's area interprets meaning of speech
  52. Types of breathing
    • Eupnea
    • Apnea
    • Hyperventilation
    • Hyperpnea
    • Dyspnea
    • Nonrespiratory air movements
  53. Eupnea
    normal quiet breathing
  54. Apnea
    • cessation of breathing, may occur when low Pco2 (hypocapnia) 
    • if co2 is low a person may momentarily stop breathing
  55. Hyperventilation
    • excessive ventilation, such as from anxiety
    • may cause low pCo2 and alkalosis (blood is too basic)
  56. Hyperpnea
    increased ventilation due to metabolic rate, such as exercise
  57. Dyspnea
    labored breathing such as after smoking
  58. Nonrespiratory air movements
    • cough, sneeze, cry, laugh, hiccups, yawn
    • some are reflex, some voluntary
    • seperate centers ex- in medulla- may affect respiratory rythems
  59. COPD
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    • includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis
  60. Emphysema
    • increased dilation of alveoli in lungs, forming holes- abnormal dead space
    • smoking stimulates WBCs which make enzymes destroying lung tissue
    • Hypoventilation (insufficient ventilation), respiratory acidosis (blood too acidic) due to CO2 retention (bc its hard to get out of alveoli) dyspnea (trouble breathing)
    • potentially fatal
  61. Infections of respiratory system
    • Rhinitis (common cold- virus)
    • Larangitis- mucous on vocal cords (mostly virus)
    • Bronchitis
    • Influenza- virus
    • Pneumonia (lungs)- infection of lung; viral or bacterial
    • Tuberculosis (lungs-can spread through lymph to other organs)- bacterial lung infection; requires long course of antibiotics
  62. Pleurisy
    • inflammation of pleura (pleura membrane around the lungs containing pleural fluid)
    • often after pneumonia or other infection
    • friction and pain bc fluid is lost
  63. Pneumothroax
    • air in intrapleural space, as from chest wound, causes atelectasis (lungs collapse)
    • always more pressure in lungs than pleural cavity, but outside pressure can make lungs collapse if youre wounded
  64. Carbon monoxide poisoning
    • CO binds to hemoglobin 200X stronger than O2 at the same place
    • danger of hypoxia (not enough O2), O2 deficienty of tissues, and death
    • treat with pure O2, or transfusion of O2 rich blood
  65. Lung Cancer
    • leading cause of death in men and women in North America
    • almost 90% result of smoking
  66. Cystic Fibrosis
    • lethal genetic disorder with abnormal thick mucus clogging respiratory passages
    • risk of respiratory infections
    • impairs food digestion by clogging digestive ducts to small intestine
  67. Infant respiratory distress syndrome
    • premature infants with inadequate surfactant (needed to prevent lungs from collapsing when you exhale- produced last 2 months of fetal development)
    • treat by spray surfactant into passageways and give a respirator to keep positive pressure to avoid collapsing
  68. SIDS
    • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome; crib death
    • unexplained death in sleep, cause of death under 1 yr old infant, believed immature respiratory control centers
    • babies who died of SIDS had decreased seratonin levels (seratonin influences the regulation of breathing)
    • to decrease risk, avoid sleep on abdomen bc child could possibly rebreathe exhalled CO2
  69. Gas exchange
    • diffusion of gasses, related to pressures of gases in mixture (air, blood or tissues)
    • higher the concentration of gas in a mixture, the higher the pressure
    • In atmospheric air:  Oxygen 21%, carbon dioxide .04% water .5% nitrogen 79%
  70. Diffusion
    • gasses diffuse down pressure gradients to reach equilibrium
    • all membranes permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide
    • dissolved gasses in plasma diffuse
  71. External Respiration
    • High O2 in alveoli so O2 diffuses into the deoxygenated blood in the lungs where there is little to no O2. that O2 goes from the dissolving in the plasma (very little dissolves here) in the lungs to dissolving in the RBCs
    • Low Co2 levels in the alveoli so RBCs in the lungs give up CO2 that goes to the plasma in the deoxygenated blood of the lungs which diffuses into the alveoli to go into the air
    • at the end of this process you have changed the blood to oxygenated blood because it picked up O2 and got rid of CO2
  72. Internal Respiration
    • RBCs in the oxygenated blood give O2 to the plasma and that O2 diffuses into the tissues which had lower o2 before
    • High co2 in the tissues diffueses into the blood plasma then goes to RBCs
    • at the end of this process you have deoxygenated blood
  73. External respiration pressures
    • pressure of oxygen in alveolar air is greater than pressure of oxygen in plasma so oxygen diffuses from air to plasma
    • pressure of CO2 greater in deoxygenated blood than alveolar air so CO2 difuses from blood to air
  74. Internal respiration pressures
    • pressure of oxygen in plasma is greater than pressure of oxygen in interstitial fluid of tissues so O2 diffuses from RBCs to plasma to tissues
    • pressure of Co2 is greater in tissue interstitial fluid than in plasma so CO2 diffuses from tissues to blood
  75. Bohr effect
    • as more CO2 builds up in blood from gas exchange in tissues, hemoglobin in RBCs releases more oxygen into plasma which then diffueses into tissues
    • the more CO2 you produce, more o2 you need
  76. Transport of gases in the blood
    • oxygen has low solubility in plasma: 1.5% O2 dissolved in plasma
    • Co2: 7-10% dissolved in plasma; 20% in RBC bound to globin protein part of hemoglobin; about 70% as bicarbonate in plasma
  77. carbon dioxide reaction in blood
    • carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid which dissociates to hydrogen ion and bicarbonate
    • reaction is reversable and stimulated by carbonic anhydrase
    • (Co2 + H20-><- H2CO3(carbonic acid)-><- H+ (acid) + HCO3- (bicarbonate)
  78. Blood ph
    • more CO2 in blood means more acidic blood so deoxygenated blood is 7.35
    • less CO2 means less acidic so oxygenate blood is 7.45
  79. Anemia
    • decreased oxygen carrying capacity of blood
    • may be due to too few RBCs or too little hemaglobin
    • Symptoms: tired, low energy production in cell respiration due to low O2 availabilty, maybe short of breath
  80. Possible Causes of anemia
    • iron deficiency anemia
    • Hypoxia
    • hemorrhagic anemia
    • hemolytic anemia
    • sickle cell anemia
  81. iron deficiency anemia
    • most common
    • need iron to make hemoglobin
    • anemia from deficiency of other nutrients needed to make hemoglobin such as vitamin B12 and folic acid
  82. Hypoxia (anemia cause)
    low o2 availability as in high altitudes or pneumonia
  83. Hemorrhagic anemia
    due to blood loss
  84. hemolytic anemia
    due to RBC destruction (ex- in cancer + chemotherapy)
  85. Sickle cell anemia
    genetic disorder with abnormal globin, contributes to cell rupture
  86. Polycythemia
    • high # of RBCs causing increased viscosity, often related to bone marrow cancer 
    • opposite of anemia
  87. antigen
    anything recognized as foreign by immune system
  88. Passive artificial immunity
    serum made from blood of people who have already had disease and antibodies for it
  89. Passive natural immunity
    immunity passed from mother to child
  90. Active natural immunity
    occurs the first time you are exposed to the dangerous organism
  91. Active Artificial Immunity
    vaccine causing us to make the antibodies