Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
2015-02-15 18:45:54
Cardiovascular System
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
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  1. What is abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    abnormal dilation in arterial wall of the aorta between the renal arteries and the iliac branches
  2. What are the 3 types of abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • Saccular Aneurysm
    • Fusiform Aneurysm
    • False Aneurysm
  3. Define Saccular
    resembles a sac
  4. Define Fusiform
    having a spindle-like shape
  5. What is a saccular aneurysm?
    outpouching occurs on one side the the artery
  6. What is the fusiform aneurysm?
    Forms a spindle-like shape, and occurs on each side of the aortic wall
  7. What is a False Aneurysm?
    When the arterial wall is injured and leads to a sac formation affecting the artery and heart
  8. 95% of abdominal aortic aneurysms occur because of...
    arteriosclerosis (when arteries become thick and stiff)
  9. Define cystic medical necrosis
    cyst-like lesion develops on the medial of large arteries
  10. What are the less common causes of abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • Cystic Medial necrosis
    • Trauma
    • Syphillis
    • Other infections
  11. How does an abdominal aortic aneurysm begin?
    there is a weakness in the tunic media allowing the tunic intima and tunica adventitia to stretch outward. BP in the aorta weakens the compromised walls and enlarges the aneurysm
  12. define tunica
    membranous sheath lining an organ (like a coat)
  13. Define Adventitia
    outermost layer of the wall of a blood vessel
  14. Define Media
    middle layer
  15. Define intima
    innermost coating of a part or organ
  16. What are the symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • Most don't produce symptoms
    • larger aneurysms may be evident as a pulsating mass in the periumbilical area, accompanied by a systolic bruit over the aorta
  17. Define periumbilical
    area adjacent to the naval
  18. Define systolic bruit
    abnormal sound or murmur hear during the systol
  19. What is the breaking point symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • lumbar pain radiates to the flank and groin from pressure on the lumbar nerves
    • if aneurysm occurs in peritoneal cavity, it causes severe consistent abdominal/back pain
  20. What tests show an abdominal aortic aneurysm
    Because there are rarely any symptoms, they're usually detected by X-ray or physical
  21. What tests confirm an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • Serial Ultrasonography- allows accurate determination of size, shape and location
    • Anteroposterior and lateral X-ray- shows aortic calcification, outlines mass most of the time
    • Computed tomography- visualizes aneurysms effect on nearby organs
    • Aortography- shows flow channel, but not clot
  22. What are the treatments for abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • Invasive Intervention
    • Drug Options
  23. What is the invasive intervention for an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
    • surgery to repair/replace the damaged aorta
    • Endoluminal stent graphing- stens are placed on both sides of artery to increase blood flow
  24. What is the drug option treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysms?
    Beta-adrenergic blockers- decrease BP to decrease the growth rate of the aneuryms