Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
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What is abdominal aortic aneurysm?
abnormal dilation in arterial wall of the aorta between the renal arteries and the iliac branches
What are the 3 types of abdominal aortic aneurysm?
- Saccular Aneurysm
- Fusiform Aneurysm
- False Aneurysm
resembles a sac
having a spindle-like shape
What is a saccular aneurysm?
outpouching occurs on one side the the artery
What is the fusiform aneurysm?
Forms a spindle-like shape, and occurs on each side of the aortic wall
What is a False Aneurysm?
When the arterial wall is injured and leads to a sac formation affecting the artery and heart
95% of abdominal aortic aneurysms occur because of...
arteriosclerosis (when arteries become thick and stiff)
Define cystic medical necrosis
cyst-like lesion develops on the medial of large arteries
What are the less common causes of abdominal aortic aneurysm?
- Cystic Medial necrosis
- Other infections
How does an abdominal aortic aneurysm begin?
there is a weakness in the tunic media allowing the tunic intima and tunica adventitia to stretch outward. BP in the aorta weakens the compromised walls and enlarges the aneurysm
membranous sheath lining an organ (like a coat)
outermost layer of the wall of a blood vessel
innermost coating of a part or organ
What are the symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
- Most don't produce symptoms
- larger aneurysms may be evident as a pulsating mass in the periumbilical area, accompanied by a systolic bruit over the aorta
area adjacent to the naval
Define systolic bruit
abnormal sound or murmur hear during the systol
What is the breaking point symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
- lumbar pain radiates to the flank and groin from pressure on the lumbar nerves
- if aneurysm occurs in peritoneal cavity, it causes severe consistent abdominal/back pain
What tests show an abdominal aortic aneurysm
Because there are rarely any symptoms, they're usually detected by X-ray or physical
What tests confirm an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
- Serial Ultrasonography- allows accurate determination of size, shape and location
- Anteroposterior and lateral X-ray- shows aortic calcification, outlines mass most of the time
- Computed tomography- visualizes aneurysms effect on nearby organs
- Aortography- shows flow channel, but not clot
What are the treatments for abdominal aortic aneurysm?
- Invasive Intervention
- Drug Options
What is the invasive intervention for an abdominal aortic aneurysm?
- surgery to repair/replace the damaged aorta
- Endoluminal stent graphing- stens are placed on both sides of artery to increase blood flow
What is the drug option treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysms?
Beta-adrenergic blockers- decrease BP to decrease the growth rate of the aneuryms
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