Medical Terminology Chapter #5

Card Set Information

Medical Terminology Chapter #5
2015-02-15 23:00:14
Medical Terminology

Medical Terms Chapter 5
Show Answers:

  1. ACE
    angiotensin-converting enzyme
  2. ACS
    acute coronary syndrome
  3. ASD
    atrial septal defect
  4. AV
  5. BP
    blood pressure
  6. CABG
    coronary artery bypass graft
  7. CAD
    coronary artery disease
  8. CHF
    congestive heart failure
  9. CO
    cardiac output
  10. CTA
    computed tomographic angiography
  11. DVT
    deep vein thrombosis
  12. ECG or EKG
  13. ECHO
  14. EPS
    electrophysiological study
  15. HTN
  16. ICD
    implantable cardioverter defibrillator
  17. IV
  18. MI
    myocardial infarction
  19. MRA
    magnetic resonance angiography
  20. MUGA
    multiple-gated acquisition (scan)
  21. MVP
    mitral valve prolapse
  22. NSR
    normal sinus rhythm
  23. PCI
    percutaneous coronary intervention
  24. PDA
    patent ductus arteriosus
  25. PET
    positron-emission tomography
  26. PTCA
    percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
  27. PVC
    premature ventricular contraction
  28. SA
  29. SCA
    sudden cardiac arrest
  30. SV
    stroke volume
  31. TEE
    transesophageal echocardiogram
  32. tPA or TPA
    tissue plasminogen activator
  33. VSD
    ventricular septal defect
  34. vessel (combining forms)
    angi/o, vas/o, vascul/o
  35. aorta (combining forms)
  36. artery (combining forms)
  37. fatty (lipid) paste (combining forms)
  38. atrium (combining forms)
  39. heart (combining forms)
  40. circle or crown (combining forms)
  41. muscle (combining forms)
  42. chest (combining forms)
    pector/o, steth/o
  43. pulse (combining forms)
  44. clot (combining forms)
  45. vein (combining forms)
    ven/o, phleb/o
  46. swollen, twisted vein (combining forms)
  47. ventricle (belly or pouch)
  48. upper right or left chamber of the heart
  49. membrane lining the cavities of the heart
  50. membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
  51. partition between the right and left atria
    interatrial septum
  52. partition between the right and left ventricles
    interventricular septum
  53. heart muscle
  54. protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid between
  55. layer closest to the heart
    visceral pericardium
  56. outer layer
    parietal pericardium
  57. fluid-filled cavity between the pericardial layers
    pericardial cavity
  58. lower right or left chambers of the heart
  59. structures within the heart that open and close with the heart beat to regulate the one-way flow of blood
    heart valves
  60. heart valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
    aortic valve
  61. heart valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle
    mitral or bicuspid valve
  62. heart valve opening form the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery
    pulmonary semilunar valve
  63. valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
    tricuspid valve
  64. valves located at intervals within the lining of veins, especially in the legs, which constrict with muscle action to move the blood returning to the heart
    valves of the veins
  65. vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles
  66. large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle
  67. small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
  68. tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
  69. small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
  70. vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
  71. circulation of the blood throughout the body via arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues
    systemic circulation
  72. circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessel to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
    coronary circulation
  73. circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
    pulmonary circulation
  74. to expand; period during the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria
  75. to contract; period during the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and the pulmonary artery
  76. normal blood pressure
  77. low blood pressure
  78. high blood pressure or persistently high blood pressure
    hypertension (FTN)
  79. the pacemaker; highly specialized, neurological tissue impeded in the wall of the right atrium; responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the artria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV node
    sinoatrial (SA) node
  80. neurological tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His
    atrioventricular (AV) node
  81. neurological fibers extending from the AV node to the right and left bundle branches that fire the impulse from the AV node to the Purkinje fibers
    bundle of His
  82. fibers in the ventricle that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract
    Purkinje fibers or network
  83. resting; resting state of a myocardial cell
  84. change of myocardial cell from a polarized (resting) state to a state of contraction
  85. recharging of the myocardial cell from a contracted state back to a resting state
  86. regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulated by the SA node
    normal sinus rhythm
  87. a widening; a bulging of the wall of the heart, aorta, or artery caused by a congenital defect or acquired weakness
  88. a sac-like bulge on one side
    saccular aneurysm
  89. a spindle-shaped bulge
    fusiform aneurysm
  90. a split or tear of the vessel wall
    dissecting aneurysm
  91. chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle; often caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries
    angina pectoris
  92. thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification(hardening) of arterial walls
  93. a form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the buildup of fatty substances that harden within the walls of the arteries
  94. a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fat (lipids)
    arteromatous plaque
  95. to limp; pain in a limb (especially the calf) while walking that subsides after rest; caused by inadequate blood supply
  96. compression of a part that causes narrowing (stenosis)
  97. profuse sweating (perspiration)
  98. a clot carried in the bloodstream that obstructs the flow of blood when it lodges
  99. an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
    heart murmur
  100. to stuff; a localized area of necrosis caused by ischemia resulting from occlusion of a blood vessel
  101. to hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constrictions or occlusion of a blood vessel
  102. lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing, occlusion, etc.
    perfusion deficit
  103. plugging; an obstruction or a closing off
  104. subjective experience of pounding, skipping or racing
  105. condition of narrowing of a part
  106. a stationary blood clot
  107. to grow; an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally as a result of infection
  108. signs and symptoms indicating an active process of atherosclerotic plaque buildup or formation of a thrombus, or spasm within a coronary artery, causing a reduction or loss of blood flow to myocardial tissue; includes unstable angina and other pathological events leading to myocardial infarction  (MI); early diagnosis and rapid treatment are critical to avoid or minimize damage to heart muscle
    acute coronary syndrome (ACS)
  109. any of the several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
    arrhythmia or dysrhythmia
  110. slow heart rate
  111. chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart
  112. a ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node
    premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
  113. fast heart rate
  114. a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or the heart valves
    bacterial endocarditis
  115. compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac, as results from pericarditis or trauma, causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart
    cardiac tamponade
  116. a general term for disease of the heart muscle
  117. malformations of the heart that are present at birth
    congenital anomaly of the heart
  118. an opening in the septum separating the atria
    atrial septal defect (ASD)
  119. narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta, resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body
    coarctation of the aorta
  120. an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth
    patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
  121. an opening in the septum separating the ventricles
    ventricular septal defect
  122. failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body, resulting in a "bottleneck" of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, causing edema in lower portion of the body
    congestive heart failure (CHF) or left ventricular failure
  123. enlargement of the right ventricle, resulting from chronic disease within the lungs, that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lungs
    cor pulmonale or right ventricular failure
  124. a condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium; most often caused by atherosclerosis
    coronary artery disease (CAD)
  125. high blood pressure attributed to no single cause; risk include smoking, obesity, increased salt intake, hypercholesterolemia, and hereditary factors
    esstential or primary hypertension
  126. high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease
    secondary hypertension
  127. protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
    mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
  128. heart attack; death of myocardial tissue caused by ischemia as a result of an occlusion of a coronary artery; usually caused by atherosclerosis; symptoms include pain in the chest or upper body, shortness of breath, diaphoresis, and nausea
    myocardial infarction (MI)
  129. inflammation of myocardium; most often caused by viral or bacterial infection
  130. inflammation of the pericardium
  131. damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever
    rheumatic heart disease
  132. the abrupt cessation of any cardiac output, most commonly as the result of ventricular fibrillation; caused sudden death unless defibrillation is initiated immediately
    sudden cardiac arrest (SCA)
  133. formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body occurring most often in the femoral and iliac veins
    deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
  134. inflammation of a vein
  135. inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
  136. abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves; most often seen in the legs
    varicose veins
  137. grafting a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body to bypass an occluded coronary artery, restoring circulation to myocardial tissue; the traditional method includes temporary arrest of the heart with circulation of the patients's blood through a heart-lung machine during the procedure; an alternative, off-pump approach uses a stabilizer to perform the procedure on the beating heart
    coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
  138. opening; the joining of two blood vessels to allow flow from one to the other
  139. surgical removal of the lining of an artery to clear a blockage caused by a clot or atherosclerotic plaque buildup
  140. surgery to replace a diseased heart valve with an artificial valve; there are two types of artificial valves: tissue valves and mechanical valves
    valve replacement
  141. surgical repair of a defective heart valve
  142. interventional procedures used to treat coronary artery disease performed at the time of cardiac catheterization in a specialized laboratory setting instead of the traditional operating room
    percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)
  143. use of a flexible fiberoptic angioscope that is guided through a specific blood vessel to visually assess a lesion and to select the mode of therapy
    angioscopy or vascular endoscopy
  144. excision of atheromatous plaque from within an artery utilizing a device housed in a flexible catheter that selectively cuts away or pulverizes tissue buildup
  145. a method of treating the narrowing of a coronary arty by inserting a specialized catheter with a balloon attachment, then inflating the balloon to dilate and open the narrowed portion of the vessel and restore blood flow to the myocardium; most often includes the placement of a stent
    percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
  146. implantation of a device used to reinforce the wall of a vessel and assure its patency; most often used to treat a stenosis or a dissection or to reinforce patency of a vessel after angioplasty
    intravascular stent placement
  147. termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivering an electrical stimulus to the heart; most commonly this is done by applying the electrodes of the defibrillator externally to the chest wall, but it can also be performed internally, such as during open heart surgery or via an implanted device
  148. device that delivers the electrical stimulus in defibrillation
  149. restoration of a fast or irregular heart rate to a normal rhythm, either by pharmaceutical means or by delivery of electrical energy
  150. an implanted, battery-operated device with rate-sensing leads; the device monitors cardiac impulses and initiates an electrical stimulus as needed to stop ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia
    implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)
  151. a device used to treat slow heart rates by electrically stimulating the heart to contract; most often, it is implanted with lead wires and battery circuitry under the skin, but it can also be placed on a temporary basis externally with lead wires inserted into the heart via a vein
  152. drug that suppresses the conversion of angiotensin in the blood by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); used in the treatment of hypertension
    angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
  153. drug that dilates coronary arteries, restoring oxygen to the tissues to relieve the pain of angina pectoris
  154. drug that counteracts cardiac arrhythmia
  155. drug that prevents clotting of the blood; commonly used in the treatment of thrombophlenitis and myocardial infarction
  156. drug that lowers blood pressure
  157. agent that inhibit responses to sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity, causing a slowing of electrical conduction and heart rate and a lowering of the pressure within the walls of the vessels; used to treat angina pectoris and hypertension
    beta-adrenergic blocking agents or beta-blockers
  158. agents that inhibit the entry of calcium ions into heart muscle cells, causing a slowing of the heart rate, lessening of the demand for oxygen and nutrients, and a relaxing of the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels to cause dilation; used to prevent or treat angina pectoris, some arrhythmias, and hypertension
    calcium-channel blockers
  159. drug that increases the force of myocardial contractions in the heart; commonly used to treat congestive hear failure (CHF)
  160. drug that increases the secretion of urine; commonly prescribed in treating hypertension
  161. drug that reduces serum fat and cholesterol
  162. drugs used to dissolve thrombi; used in acute management of myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke; commonly called "clot busters"
    thrombolytic agents
  163. drug that causes a narrowing of the blood vessels, thereby decreasing blood flow
  164. drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels, thereby increasing blood flow